Islam, Extremism and Pakistan

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By

Muhammad Azam Khan and Aiysha Safdar[1]

Abstract

(Perhaps no other country in the world will have so many private armies-lashkars, sipah, jaish-as one can witness in Pakistan today. The perennial and deadly mix of mosque and politics, much despised by the founding father, has resulted in a steep rise and an endless cycle of violence being committed in the name of religion. A blood curdling example of this was the barbaric act of slitting of throats of 22 Levies captured by the Taliban as recently as late December last year.[1] ‘None of the leading Islamic scholars of the subcontinent including Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi, Maulana Maudoodi and the entire Deoband group ever advocated mass slaughter to establish Sharia rule.[2] Extremism and attendant violence is anti-thesis to economic growth and prosperity which in a digital age are deeply tied to the uninterrupted flow of information. The perpetual failure of the state in effectively dealing with the violent extremist and reactionary forces has not only caused the deepening of societal polarization but also aggravated its economic predicament.[3] – Author)

Ijtehad- dismissing revaluation

For over three hundred years now the doors of ‘ijtehad’ what is also called ‘creative thinking’ have remained closed in the Muslim world. As a result the Muslim mind has fallen victim to irrationalism, traditionalism, and dogmatism. ‘It is ingrained in our psychology that correct answers already exist, and are to be found in books or from authorities, religious or secular. Teachers disperse truth, parents are always right and leaders are omniscient. They act like philosopher kings, often uttering unchallenged banalities. Questioning authority is disrespectful and un-Islamic’[4] Much against this caricature however, Islam is an open, pluralistic and tolerant ‘religion built on the democratic principles of consultation (shura); building consensus (ijma); finally leading to independent judgment’ (ijtehad)[5].

Ijtehad has been part and parcel of the process of lawmaking in Islam. The root meaning of ijtehad (derived from jahada) is to strive, to make an effort. It is the process whereby a scholar makes his utmost intellectual effort to understand a new phenomenon and find a solution to it that is acceptable to Islam. All great imams and founders of different schools of Islamic law practised ijtehad to arrive at solutions of various problems they confronted in their own time. The word fiqh, which is often used for Islamic jurisprudence, also means to know, understand and comprehend. Hence fiqh became an integral part of Islamic jurisprudence; experts of Islamic law are referred to as faqih[6]Ijtehad, is thus a revaluation of the structural form of law in the light of Islamic teachings and to adopt new ways and means in order to sustain the proper growth and development of life and to maintain discipline for the realization of these ends. And it is this spirit of ijtehad which ensures the fulfilment of Islamic objectives. No one can possibly deny the fact that change in the forces of life makes the application of ijethad inevitable’[7] .  ‘The legal code of ijtehad that was framed in view of the compulsions and requirements of a particular era or a specific historical phase is invalidated by the change in circumstances. The change is so deep and pervasive that the legal code of the past becomes totally ineffective’[8]

‘Technically, ijtehad was first applied by Mu’ adh ibn Jabal, who was appointed as the governor of Yemen by the Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. When asked how he would govern when he did not find a clear ruling in the Quran or the Sunnah, he said “Ana ajtahidu”, i.e. “I will strive” (to understand the problem myself and find a way out). The Holy Prophet approved of this reasoning’[9]. This permission given to Mu’ adh ibn Jabal to exert his own reasoning provides a principle that helped meet many a difficult situation in the times of Rightly Guided Caliphs and subsequently as well[10]. A Hadith in Sahih Al-Bukhari also explains this point expressively:

‘Narrated ‘Amr bin Al-‘As that he heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “If a judge gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct (i.e. agrees with Allah and His Apostle’s verdict) he will receive a double reward, and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, (i.e. against that of Allah and His Apostle) even then he will get a reward’[11].

Shutting the doors

The ayat of the Qur’an are commonly separated into two groups, as Muhkam (محكم) or the ones with very clear and straightforward meanings and Mutashabeh (متشابه), with multiple interpretations. There are 6236 verses in the Quran[12]. Out of these only 543 verses or near about address various issues with certitude, the rest are open to interpretation. The four legal schools operative among Sunnis today have remained unchanged from the time they were founded, respectively, by Malik Ibn Anas (d.795), Abu Hanifa (d. 767), Mohammad Ibn Idris al-Shafi (d.820), and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. 855). The differences between these schools stem entirely from different weights they attach to various Quranic verses and the degree of validity accorded by each to various Prophetic traditions. Between these schools, all major problems of Islamic jurisprudence had been resolved by the end of the 11th century. With this the doors of ijtehad were formally closed[13].

Stagnation of logic

In the 12th century, Muslim orthodoxy reawakened, spearheaded by the Arab cleric Imam Al-Ghazali (d. 1111). ‘Al-Ghazali championed revelation over reason, predestination over free will. He damned mathematics as being against Islam, an intoxicant of the mind that weakened faith.  Caught in the viselike grip of orthodoxy, Islam choked. No longer would Muslim, Christian and Jewish scholars gather and work together in the royal courts. It was the end of tolerance, intellect and science in the Muslim world. The last great Muslim thinker, Abd-al Rahman Ibn Khaldun, belonged to the 14th century’[14]. However it is also argued that ‘the stagnation in the process of ijtehad was not because of the sack of Baghdad by Mongols in 1258 but a result of the stagnation in the Muslim societies following the sack’[15].

Islam and dynamism

It is maintained and, not without validity that ‘Islam is a permanent revolution- its grand narrative reflected in the principles of adl and ihsan, a thirst for ilm, and tolerance and pluralism. The message of Holy Prophet is: Islam is a permanent revolution opposed to dogmatism. The motivating force in the permanence of Islam’s revolution is the spirit of Islamic culture which regards the world as dynamic and evolving’[16].  In the words of Quran: ‘Of Him seeks (its need) every creature in the heavens and on earth: every day in (new) Splendour doth He (shine)’! (55: 29)[17]. The same verse has been translated by Pickthall as: ‘All that are in the heavens and the earth entreat Him. Every day He exerciseth (universal) power’.

‘When Islam spread to non-Arab cultures in Asia and Africa, the ulema were faced with new problems and often baffling challenges. They exerted themselves intellectually and tried to find solutions in the light of Quranic pronouncements and values and the sunnah of the Prophet. They also invented useful tools like qiyas (analogical reasoning) and ijma, i.e. consensus among experts[18]’. These tools were necessary since the ulema could not find solutions directly in the Quran and the sunnah to the problems that arose in their respective times. The process of lawmaking had begun right in the beginning when conquests brought Muslims face to face with new problems and varying social practices. Thus, the dynamic spirit of Islamic law was suffused in the very process. It never ignored objective conditions and new situations that arose from time to time in societies that were not Bedouin and tribal (in which Islam was born)[19]

The abstraction

Islam is also an abstraction and is as heterogeneous as those who follow it. In other words Islam holds different meaning for different people. ‘Maulana Abdus Sattar Edhi, Pakistan’s pre-eminent social worker, and the Taliban’s Mohammad Omar are both followers of Islam, but the former is overdue for a Nobel Peace Prize while the latter is an ignorant, psychotic fiend’[20].

From its origin on the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century C.E., Islam has grown into a worldwide religion with more than 1.6 billion adherents – nearly a quarter of the world’s population. Today, Muslims live on all inhabited continents and embody a wide range of races, ethnicities and cultures. A Pew Research was recently conducted in over 80 languages with Muslims in 39 countries and territories that collectively are home to roughly two-thirds (67%) of all Muslims in the world. The Report concluded that ‘while there is much commonality in what are considered articles of ‘faith’ and ‘pillars’ of practices, there were substantial differences on other important questions, such as whether Islam is open to more than one correct interpretation or which groups should be considered part of the Muslim community’[21].

‘The core problem in the Muslim world today is not on account of Islam but because of the 72 or so versions advanced by the cleric[22]’.

Jinnah and the Reactionaries

‘Pakistan’s founder, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was a forceful vocal opponent of the obscurantist forces and had ruled out any role for religion in state affairs.  Why is Pakistan of today scarred by the very evils he had so forcefully denounced?  The famous speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August 1947 needs no recalling[23]’.  But few others do; very much so since these are conveniently ignored.  His speech at the Muslim University Union in Stratchy Hall at Aligarh on 5 February 1938 was a martial cry.  It marked a turning point in his career.  ‘There was no pride in me and I used to beg from the Congress’.  He now sought ‘a definite share in power’, not paper safeguards, for Muslims’[24].

The Muslim League had begun to make a resounding impact.  Jinnah added: ‘What the League has done is to set you free from the reactionary elements of Muslims and to create the opinion that those who play their selfish games are traitors.  It has certainly freed you from that undesirable element of Maulvis and Maulanas’. He declared at the Central Legislature Assembly on Feb 7, 1935 that ‘Religion should not be allowed to come into politics.’ At the Muslim League Legislatures’ Convention in Delhi in April 1946, Jinnah was even more emphatic in his concluding remarks that ‘What are we fighting for? What are we aiming at? It is not theocracy- not a theocratic state[25]…..’

‘Jinnah knew that during British rule there was a market in which fatwas (edict) were sold to the rulers to assist them in consolidating their rule.  Hence Iqbal’s famous couplet: Deen-e-kafir fikr tadbeer aur jihad/kar-e-mullah fi sabilillah fasaad.  (The unbeliever is committed to innovation and exertion.  The mullah’s job is to foment strife in the name of Allah). To Jinnah even Qadianis and Ahmadis had a place under the flag of the All India Muslim League which is why he inducted Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan in responsible position as League’s counsel before the Radcliffe Commission and next as the longest serving Foreign Minister of Pakistan, a post in which he won international acclaim’[26].

The End of Jinnah’s dream

‘Both the Ahrars and the Jamaat-e-Islami had bitterly opposed the establishment of Pakistan. But within a few years after its establishment, they combined to hijack the political agenda in Pakistan, reducing the Muslim League to a servile follower-all in the name of Islam. As early as 1949, the two parties launched an anti-Ahmadiaya movement. Their plank was: the Ahmadiayas should be declared a non-Muslim minority; Zafarullah Khan should be sacked from office and Ahmadiayas should be dismissed from posts in the Government’[27].

In early March 1953 anti-Ahmadiaya riots erupted in Punjab and on 6 March Area Commander Major General Azam, imposed martial law. The Report of the Court of Inquiry constituted under Punjab Act 11 of 1954, commonly known as the Munir Commission to enquire into the Punjab Disturbances of 1953 is a thorough exposure of the causes of the rise of fundamentalism and its ally, violence[28]. The Report is a clear indictment of the State’s apathy to check the horrible crimes committed during the period from 1949-1953. That was when the seeds were sown-murders, razing of mosques, Shia-Sunni discord and attacks on Christians[29].

Few lines from the 1954 Munir Commission merit mention: ‘If there is one thing which has been conclusively demonstrated in this inquiry, it is provided you can persuade the masses to believe that something they are asked to do is religiously right or enjoined by religion, you can set them to any course of action, regardless of all considerations of discipline, loyalty, decency, morality or civic sense. Pakistan is being taken by the common man as though it is not an Islamic State. This belief has been encouraged by the ceaseless clamour for Islam and Islamic State that is being heard from all quarters since the establishment of Pakistan’[30].

From Jinnah to the  Taliban

As we write these lines, six polio workers five of them females have been shot dead by the Taliban in Karachi and Peshawar. The slain fell victim to a seemingly nationwide coordinated attack in Karachi and Peshawar by the Taliban on December 18,[31] who are opposed to the polio vaccination drive. Of late there has also been a demand for ‘Islamic’ or halal polio vaccine ‘from the basin of blind bats called FATA’[32]. While there could be nothing more preposterous or absurd than this demand, one is at a loss to explain this ‘xenophobia in the name of Islam’[33].

Earlier, on December 1, 2012 a Swedish 70 year old charity worker was shot outside her home in posh Model Town area of Lahore. This was followed a day later by a horrific attack on an Ahmedi graveyard in the same vicinity. Ten to 15 armed and masked men overpower the guard and caretakers at the graveyard and desecrate and vandalize more than 120 graves by smashing their tombstones carrying inscriptions from holy texts[34]. It was also in the previous year that Malala Yousafzai’s courage and the ordeal had moved millions across the world except for the perpetrators, the Taliban who continue to remain not only unrepentant but have vowed to attack her again as she survived this time. All this is a clear illustration that the process that began in 1949 has progressively reached its zenith and the disease in the entrails of society is eating it up from within[35]. Ironically, ‘few other societies have faced the menace of religious extremism in a bloodier fashion than ours. Yet few other societies have seen such a sharp split on this critical issue than ours’[36]. Indeed, today’s Pakistan is anything but Jinnah’s dream.

The Future

According to Justice Dr. Javed Iqbal, the son of the national poet, Allama Iqbal, ‘the Muslims of Pakistan can either revert to the ‘ijtehadi’ concept of Allama Iqbal or accept the ‘taqleedi’ Islam of the Taliban[37].  Most of the countries inhabited by Muslims do not claim to be Islamic except for Turkey and Pakistan. The Turks describe their political system as a secular democracy, while the Pakistanis call it Islamic democracy. Iran and Afghanistan of Taliban era could also be described as Islamic states of their own kind. Dr Javed asserts, ‘Every Pakistani cleric had presented his own concept of Islamic state independent of the ideas of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Allama Iqbal.’[38] He further expounds that religious circles believe secularism to be devoid of religion which may be true, however, a nation accepting secularism as a form of government cannot be described as having renounced religion. A secular state, according to Dr Javed, is considered exemplary since it guarantees religious freedom to all its citizens and enforces the laws aimed at collective welfare of society. Dr Javed maintains that the religious injunctions regarding worship cannot be changed, however, the ways and means for worldly affairs can be altered through ‘ijtehad’.[39]

Be that as it may, the state of Pakistan today is a far cry from the ideals of its founding fathers. ‘The process of ‘legal Islamization’ that started with the passing of the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in 1949 has since continued. It went on during the Ayub era, intensified during the Bhutto era and was given an extremist look by General Zia. [40] Quaid-i-Azam had made it clear that Pakistan would not be a theocratic state to be ruled by mullahs with a divine mission. Yet 65 years after it came into existence, ‘Pakistan resembles Jinnah’s vision only in the breach. Jihadi terrorism seeks precisely to turn Pakistan into a theocracy based on narrowest possible interpretation of religion, rooted in Wahabbi/Salafist purist, literalist tradition that most other school of thought in Islam disagree with, especially in the subcontinent, home to a vibrant, tolerant, inclusive Sufi culture’[41].

Pakistan is now fighting what is called ‘fifth –generation’ warfare (5GW). Put simply, ‘it is loosely organized networks practicing violence and attacking nation states in the name of unified cause while being empowered by contemporary political, economic, social and technological changes’[42].  Nothing explains this better than the recent attack on Peshawar airport.

Reactionary forces are making profound inroads in society and the state is showing little or no resolve to fight back.  Knee-jerk reactions from the state like blocking cellular services and Youtube are not the solution to the spreading tentacles of extremist forces. If Pakistan is to remain relevant to the rest for the world and itself, it will have to look beyond these measures. It becomes even more imperative since the global economic center of gravity has now shifted from the Atlantic to Asia Pacific[43] and almost all rising economies[44]– some of them spectacularly- are in the region in which Pakistan is located. It should not come as a surprise that while two of its neighbors i.e. China and India are today the global economic powerhouses, Pakistan is on the brink of internal collapse.

In a recent interview with the CNN and in response to ‘censorship regimes’ in some countries like Iran and China, Tim Berner Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web that interconnects over 25 percent of the global population said, ‘it only makes a government weak if it controls information-economically its got to be open’[45]. ‘Too many things are frequently banned in Pakistan including YouTube, pillion riding and increasingly, mobile phone services’[46]. ‘We are becoming a laughing stock of the world. And even as these bans are placed, apparently on whim, bombs go off in Karachi, Peshawar and elsewhere, sectarian murders continue and soldiers are kidnapped’[47].

No country or society can stay economically viable, let alone competitive if the flow of information therein remains hostage to state disruptions and restrictions accruing from fear of violence (religious or otherwise) or else to appease the reactionary violent right wing forces. In Pakistan it is not the absorption of cutting edge technology but rather the integration of society with a hyperconnected world that has been at the mercy of reactionaries and obscurantists.

Getting out of the morass

If Pakistan has to recover from this morass the state has to urgently undertake the following:

►The state must reach a political consensus on the long standing need to develop a holistic approach in fighting growing extremism, militancy and other shades of reactionary forces in the society. This should also involve making NACTA[48] a vibrant and an autonomous body for coordinating and unifying counterterrorism efforts involving various civil and military intelligence agencies and other stakeholders.  Once done, the policy must be duly backed by political resolve and reviewed periodically.

►Normalizing relation with India is an aspect that can be a ‘game changer’ for Pakistan’s current downward slide in the face of growing extremism and militancy. ‘There is so much to gain that it is mind-boggling how much poverty you can reduce in the South Asian subcontinent by developing trade and peaceful relationship between India and Pakistan’, so articulated Imran Khan, the Chairman of Pakistan Tehreeke-Insaf during a recent talk at the Institute of South Asian Studies (ISAS) in Singapore[49].  This gains further impetus given the Pakistan Army’s newly released doctrine ‘Green Book’ that underscores a ‘significant shift in its operational priorities for the first time in the 11 year old war on terror, declaring internal security challenges as major threat and danger to country’s sovereignty’[50]. ‘For decades, the army considered India as its No 1 enemy but growing extremism in the country compelled the military authorities to review its strategy’[51]. Both Pakistan and India are principal players in SAARC. South Asia’s internal trade is only $4billion but has the potential of reaching $80billion[52].  According to a recent study conducted by the Australia based Institute of Economics and Peace, 12 percent of the total terrorists attack worldwide were carried out in Pakistan between 2002 and 2009[53]. Because of poor governance and rising extremism alogwith accompanied violence, the   level of foreign investment in Pakistan has dropped down by a whopping 85 percent in the last four years. From July to November 2012, foreign direct investment stood at a paltry $305 million[54] . A genuine move towards normalizing relations with India will not only pay rich dividends towards internal stability but open vast economic opportunities as well.

►All madrassahs teach their own modified version of a curriculum called Dars-i-Nizami. This system was evolved by Mulla Nizam Uddin Sihalvi in the 18th century.  The content taught from this system is medieval and does not address contemporary concerns.  Even the commentaries on the Qur’an are from that period and therefore address issues of that era[55].  The Government must be proactive and work towards establishing collaboration with madressah boards to develop their curricula that meets contemporary requirements.  This will also provide an opportunity for the administration to monitor what is being taught in these institutions. Once the registered madrassahs have reached a certain standard then the certification process of maulvis should only be through this system.  A graduate from any unregistered madrassah should not be allowed to conduct sermons, issue fatwas, etc., unless he is first certified by the established boards[56].

►Following the passage of the 18th constitutional amendment to the constitution of 1973, the powers enumerated under the concurrent list have now been transferred to the federating units. Education too is now a provincial subject. Regardless, provinces must bring in changes at grass root levels to include the following:

●Do away with obsolete and biased curriculum that offers nothing at all about        the essence of interfaith harmony in society

●The curriculum must stress on building a harmonious interaction with       different sects and all prejudiced text hurtful of other religions must be removed[57].

●Heavy leaning on drawing questions only from text books and rote learning          must be substituted by curriculum that promotes ‘questioning minds’.

►The government will have to invest considerably to increase economic opportunities that aim to harness the potential and empower the growing percentage of youth. It is worthwhile to mention that literacy and primary education system rarely becomes an agent for providing jobs necessary for a decent living. It is technical expertise that guarantees a reasonable salary, which means higher standard of living. Owing to this malaise our youth, by and large, have remained unproductive[58]. A sound and wholesome policy to increase technical vocational institutes for developing skills will go a long way in this direction.

►In today’s knowledge economy inputs on knowledge cannot be imparted only by focusing on primary and secondary education; higher education has a huge role to play in creating knowledge based development. The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 201-2011 has also categorized higher education and training, technological growth and innovation as essential for competing in the global economy in order to gain economic enrichment and social development[59]. In other words, the prosperity and well being of nations in present era rests in ‘knowledge economy’. This in turn is linked to the investments in higher education including science, technology and innovation. India has currently 17 percent of its youth between the ages of 17 to 23 enrolled in the higher education as opposed to Pakistan’s 7.6 percent. It plans to increase this enrolment to 30 percent of the same age group by the year 2030[60].   Pakistan must transition from the low value added economy to a knowledge economy which requires highly trained manpower.[61] The government must review and re-examine its current policy on HEC to accord it the priority and status it merits and restore financial powers to its 17 member commission[62].

►The collective performance of the Ministry of Interior as well as IT in Pakistan poses a big question mark in the digital age. While the former unilaterally clamps ban on public services like cellular phones and Youtube thus effectively disconnecting Pakistan internally and from the rest of the world, the latter requires sound policies. The government must develop a clear IT, telecommunications and cyber crimes policy to bring Pakistan into the 21st century as a responsible and progressive nation.

Conclusion

Perhaps no other country in the world will have so many private armies-lashkars, sipah, jaish-as one can witness in Pakistan today. The perennial and deadly mix of mosque and politics, much despised by the founding father, has resulted in a steep rise and an endless cycle of violence being committed in the name of religion. A blood curdling example of this was the barbaric act of slitting of throats of 22 Levies captured by the Taliban as recently as late December last year[63]. ‘None of the leading Islamic scholars of the subcontinent including Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi, Maulana Maudoodi and the entire Deoband group ever advocated mass slaughter to establish Sharia rule[64].   Extremism and attendant violence is anti-thesis to economic growth and prosperity which in a digital age are deeply tied to the uninterrupted flow of information. The perpetual failure of the state in effectively dealing with the violent extremist and reactionary forces has not only caused the deepening of societal polarization but also aggravated its economic predicament[65].

Today, young Pakistanis are disillusioned by their country’s leadership; disheartened by the economic outlook and desperate for a radical change[66].  Currently a startling ‘104 million Pakistanis are uncertain where their next meal will come from as 22 percent of population lives below poverty line, up from 17 percent estimated in 2007-2008 by the World Bank’[67].Will the leadership rise to the occasion to turn Pakistan into a vibrant progressive nation?

DISCLAIMER

The views expressed in the article are those of the Author(s) and not of the Pakistan Navy War College or Pakistan Navy.


[1] Muhammad Azam Khan is a retired Pakistan Navy officer and currently serving as a senior Research Fellow at the Pakistan Navy War College, Lahore. He has extensively contributed in the national and international print media and authored a variety of papers.

Ms. Aiysha Safdar is a graduate of Kinnaird College and has done her M.Phil in IR. She has recently joined the Pakistan Navy War College, Lahore as member Research Faculty.


[1] ‘Extremism in action’, Editorial daily Dawn January 2, 2013

[2] ‘Extremism in action’, Editorial daily Dawn January 2, 2013

[3] See, Ahmar, Moonis ‘The Challenges of Extremism in Pakistan: Are there Lessons to be learnt from the Experience of Singapore?’ IPRI Journal XI, no.2 Summer 2011, pp 44

[4] Masud, Khawaja, ‘Lessons of my Life-Pakistan, Islam and the Spirit of Revolution’, ILQA Publications Lahore, Chapter 3.4, pp 59)

[5] , Bhutto, Benazir, RECONCILIATION: Islam, Democracy, and the West, SIMON & SCHUSTER New York, pp 18

[6] ‘Is Ijtihad a close deal? See daily Dawn, June 4, 2010. www.dawn.com

[7] Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad, Dr, ‘Islam In Various Perspectives’ –MINHAJ-UL-QURAN PUBLICATIONS, Lahore, pp 304

[8] Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad, Dr, ‘Islam In Various Perspectives’ –MINHAJ-UL-QURAN PUBLICATIONS, Lahore, pp 304

[9] Ali, Asghar. Engineer, ‘Is Ijtihad a close deal? Op-ed See daily Dawn, June 4, 2010. www.dawn.com)

[10] See, Hamidullah, Muhammad, ‘The Emergence of Islam’, International Islamic University, Islamabad, 1993, pp86-87)

[11] Khan, Muhammad Muhsin, Dr, Arabic-English Summarized Sahih Al-Bukhari Chapter 6 No: 2218, pp 1030, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Also, Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 92, Number 450

[12] If 112 ‘Bismillah’ are added the total comes to 6348

[13] See, Hoodbhoy, Pervez Ali, Dr, ‘Islam and Science-Religious Orthodoxy and The Battle for Rationality’ Zed Books Ltd, London, 1991, pp127

[14] See, Hoodbhoy, Pervez Ali, Dr, ‘How Islam Lost its Way’, The Washington Post December 30, 2001

[15] See Ali, Asghar. Engineer. ‘Is ‘Ijtihad’ a closed deal? Op-ed daily Dawn June 4, 2010. www.dawn.com)

[16] Masud, Khawaja, ‘Lessons of my Life-Pakistan, Islam and the Spirit of Revolution’, ILQA Publications Lahore, Introduction pp 4-5, 41-42

[17] English Translation by Allama Abdullah Yusuf Ali

[18] Ali, Asghar. Engineer, op-ed  ‘Is ‘Ijtihad’ a closed deal? See daily Dawn June 4, 2010. www.dawn.com

[19] Ali, Asghar. Engineer, op-ed ‘Is ‘Ijtihad’ a closed deal? See, daily Dawn June 4, 2010. www.dawn.com

[20] See, Hoodbhoy, Pervez Ali, Dr, ‘How Islam Lost its Way’, The Washington Post December 30, 2001

[21] According to Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion &Public Life, the Muslim population is 1.57 billion. There are 57 Muslim majority countries.  See ‘Mapping the Global Muslim Population’, October 2009. Also, ‘The World’s Muslims: United in Faith; Diverse in Practice. http://www.pewtrusts.org/our_work_report_detail.aspx?id=85899410512. See also, ‘Lynch, Marc, ‘How Muslims Really Think About Islam’, Foreign Policy, The Middle East Channel, August 9, 2012. http://mideast.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/08/09/how_muslims_really_think_about_islam

[22] Gauhar, Humayun, ‘Delusions of being Islamic’ daily Pakistan Today July 15, 2011

[23] Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 10

[24] Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 10

[25] See, Aftab, Asra. Jinnah’s true vision for Pakistan’ op-ed daily Pakistan Today, September 11, 2012

[26] See, Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 10-11

[27] , Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 11

[28] See, Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 12, 14

[29] , Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 14

[30] Excerpts, ‘Report of the Court of Inquiry’ Lahore: Superintendent Government Printing, Punjab: 1954; Rs 5, 4 annas, pp 230. See also, Noorani, A.G, ‘The Roots of Fundamentalism’, CRITERION – Quarterly October/December 2012, pp 20

[31] See daily The Nation, Dawn, December 19, 2012

[32] Qadir, Mehboob. ‘Our deliberate delirium-II, op-ed daily, Daily Times, December 19, 2012

[33] Qadir, Mehboob. ‘Our deliberate delirium’, op-ed daily, Daily Times, December 19, 2012

[34] ‘Black tide rising’, Editorial, Daily Times December 5, 2012. www.editorial@dailytimes.com.pk

[35] ‘Black tide rising’, Editorial, Daily Times December 5, 2012. www.editorial@dailytimes.com.pk

[36] Zaidi, Hussain. H., ‘A diabolical ideology’ op-ed, daily The News December 24, 2012

[37] daily Dawn November 10, 2009

[38] daily Dawn November 10, 2009

[39] daily Dawn November 10, 2009

[40] Ilyas, Shahid, ‘Federalism and religion in Pakistan’, op-ed daily Daily Times December 26, 2012

[41] Jinnah’s Legacy’ Editorial daily Daily Times December 26, 2012

[42] Sattar, Babar, ‘Fifth-generation warfare’, op-ed daily The News, November 24, 2012

[43] See The U.S New Strategic Guidance issued by Obama Administration in January 2012. http://www.defense.gov/news/defense_strategic_guidance.pdf

[44] China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore are today the most vibrant economies in the region

[45] Interview telecast by CNN News Stream December 26, 2012, 0630PST

[46] See, ‘Greetings from the stone age’ Editorial daily The News January 4, 2013

[47] See, ‘Greetings from the stone age’ Editorial daily The News January 4, 2013

[48] National Counter Terrorism Authority Hussain, Zahid, ‘Nacta: a non-starter’ daily Dawn December 4, 2012. www.dawn.com

[49] ‘A Pakistani vision of peace with India’, Institute of South Asian Studies, see daily Pakistan Today, December 21, 2012

[50] ‘The Threats within’, daily Pakistan Today, January 3, 2013

[51] ‘Army identifies ‘homegrown militancy’ as biggest threat’ , daily The Express Tribune, January 3, 2013

[52] ‘Connecting the Dots’ ‘The Lonely Nawaz Sharif’, Newsweek September 2&9, 2011, pp25

[53] Ishaque, Irfan. ‘The great decline’ op-ed daily, The News December 29, 2012. www.thenewslhr@thenews.com.pk

[54] Ishaque, Irfan, ‘The great decline’ op-ed daily, The News December 29, 2012. www.thenewslhr@thenews.com.pk

[55] Murshed, Mushfiq. ‘A counter Radicalization Strategy’ CRITERION Quarterly July/September 2010 Volume 5, Number 3, pp 117

[56] Murshed, Mushfiq. ‘A counter Radicalization Strategy’ CRITERION Quarterly July/September 2010 Volume 5, Number 3, pp 117-118

[57] See daily Dawn December 25, 2012

[58] See, Nizamuddin, Mohammad, Prof Dr. ‘The promise of higher education’, op-ed daily, The Nation December 28, 2012

[59] See, Nizamuddin, Mohammad, Prof Dr. ‘The promise of higher education’, op-ed daily, The Nation December 28, 2012

[60] See Rehman, Atta-ur . Dr. ‘Higher education in India’ daily The News May 5, 2012 and ‘Building a knowledge economy’ daily The News December 24, 2011. www.thenews.com.pk

[61] ‘Key to progress’ daily The News October 20, 2012

[62] For more see Rehman, Atta-ur . Dr. ‘Higher education in India’ daily The News May 5, 2012www.thenews.com.pk

[63] ‘Extremism in action’, Editorial daily Dawn January 2, 2013

[64] ‘Extremism in action’, Editorial daily Dawn January 2, 2013

[65] See, Ahmar, Moonis ‘The Challenges of Extremism in Pakistan: Are there Lessons to be learnt from the Experience of Singapore?’ IPRI Journal XI, no.2 Summer 2011, pp 44

[66] ‘Young and restless’ Special Report daily The Express Tribune, December 7, 2012

[67] Murshed, Iftikhar. S. ‘Pakistan’s unmourned Bouazizi’, op-ed daily The News December 24, 2012