Modern Education System in Afghanistan

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By
Imtiyaz Gul Khan*

Abstract

(Steps implemented in the educational sector in Afghanistan in the early 20th  century showed a lot of promise for future generations. However, unfortunately, more than three decades of war and political turmoil in the country has seriously hampered the development of education. A large segment of the Afghan population, children and adults alike, have had no access to basic education and training, thereby, the nation has been deprived of a generation of future doctors and engineers, teachers and academicians—all necessary components in a nation building process. International organizations, particularly UNESCO and UNICEF, have to play an important role in stimulating educational development by providing technical and financial aid.  Investment in education and training is the key to future prosperity of a nation that has suffered decades of ethnic and ideological conflict. Author).

Modern learning institutions were introduced in Afghanistan in the late 19th  century when, during the time of Amir Sher Ali (1863-1879), a kind of government schooling was introduced.1  The two schools he founded were Maktab-e Harbia (Military School) in the cantonment of Shirpur near Kabul, and Molki Wa Khawanin School, mainly for members of royal family in Bala Hissar, Kabul. These royal schools imparted education that was a mixture of traditional mosque education and some curricula based on the structural aspects of western education.2       The two schools were essentially meant to impart a special type of education to royal staffers: the military school was to impart training for organized military education and the other was to create a type of literate staffers for serving the government. For this purpose the Amir engaged both local and foreign instructors in the two schools3. Although some believe that by this act a Public School was inaugurated in Afghanistan by the government with civil and military setups,4 however, steps to establish a proper modern educational system were actually implemented during the reign of Amir Habibullah Khan (1901-1919) when he founded the first modern school, Habibia, in Kabul in 1903, with the aim of training personal for the civil service.5   The inauguration of Habibia  held great historical and cultural significance,6 as it not only represented a victory for an enlightened group known as young Afghans but it also brought aspects of western education into the country7. In 1909 the Harbia Officers College was established with had two sections: primary (general education) and special (military)8. In the same year the government set up a Board of Education to approve  school curriculum and text books and to supervise education as many primary modern schools and a Teacher’s Training College had been established9. Despite this humble beginning and the small number of students enrolled  in these schools, Kabul district alone produced 130 graduats in 1916 and in 1918 out of the 665 students enrolled 324 graduated10. Following the independence of Afghanistan in 1919, during the reign of Amir Amanullah Khan, social and political conditions became favorable for initiating the development of modern education.  A minister of Education was appointed for the first time  in 1920 11  for the development of education in the country. Following this, during the 1920’s, a number of primary and secondary schools were established due to the Amaniyah movement. Amongst others, Istiqlal Lyc’ee12 (independence), a French language school, was also established in 1923. Two other foreign language schools instituted in Kabul were: Nejat College, for German, in 1924 and Ghazni College, for English, in 192813. Some other schools founded by Amanullah were: a school for clerks and accounts established in the mid 1920’s; a Turkish school to supplement the English, German and French language colleges and a medical school was proposed in 1928. Provincial colleges similar to Amaniyah and Nejat began operating from 1928.  However, a more notable achievement was the establishment of public schools for girls. Two such schools were sponsored by Queen Surayya and her mother in Kabul by 192814. Gregorian writes that by 1928 there were 14 intermediate and secondary schools in Kabul, and a secondary school in each of the provincial administration centers. The Government did not just open schools but also provided free primary and higher education. Due to these measures and the socio-political change that took place after independence the total enrollment of students attending primary schools in 1928 was as high as 40,000,15 however, according to Ghobar’s estimates approximately 322 elementary schools enrolled around 51,000 students in the country.16    Students were also sent abroad to study in Germany, England, France, the former USSR and Turkey in order to assist in the change of the educational and social environment of the country.17  As a result of these efforts, by 1928, there were approximately 800 girls attending schools in Kabul and a few Afghan women were also studying abroad notably in Turkey, France and Switzerland.18  In that year Amaniyah Istiqlal also started enrolling women,19 thereby, introducing co-education in Kabul.20

It is obvious that King Amanullah Khan had embarked upon a policy of modernizing Afghan society with particular emphasis on modern education. He and his policies faced opposition from hardliners, particularly from religious establishments of the tribes.21    Due to this hostile opposition the King had to eventually flee the country on the 22nd January 1929.  One of the first acts of his successor, Bacha Saqo who ruled for just nine months, was the closure of all modern educational institutions in the country.22   Women who had been sent to Turkey for education were also recalled.  However, the drive to develop modern education resumed when, in September 1929, Nadir Shah became the king of Afghanistan.23

Even though Nadir Shah’s  government was  not able to match the momentum that the Amanullah government had achieved in the development of education they, nonetheless, attempted to  maintain the educational policy of the previous era. The new constitution promulgated in 1931 referred to the responsibility of the govt. for the control and provision of universal primary education for Afghan children26, and in order to implement these provisions the Bureau of Education (Dairah-i- Talim) was created. It was headed by six directors who were responsible for supervising the education system. Each province, Kabul, Kandhar, Herat, Mazir-i-Sharif, Kataghan and Badakhshan was assigned an education director.27  Following the new education policy a number of secondary schools were established in the provinces and several religious traditional schools were modernized and incorporated into the formal educational system. A secondary school for girls was also established in Kabul.28    A more noteworthy step was taken in 1932 when a nucleus for a Faculty of Medicine was set up in Kabul. It was the first medical college of the country.  Its Students, after having passed their junior examinations, were sent to France, Germany, USA, England and Turkey for advanced studies.29

By 1940 the number of government schools had increased to 324 with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 students.30 The following table (Table 1) shows the gradual increase in the number of schools, teachers and students during the ten year period from 1930-1940.

Table 1

Year       Schools Teachers              Students

1930       13           53           1590

1932       22           105         1850

1934       39           206         1657

1936       93           309         9279

1938       228         833         1,88,77

1940       324         1990       60,000

Even though the measures taken during the ten years were not comparable to that of Amanullah Khan’s government when in 1928 about 51,000 students were enrolled yet the effort for mass literacy was apparent.   It is also certain that the fall of Amanullah’s government had hampered the pace at which education had been spreading in the country for a considerable period of time.  During the Second World War (1939-1944) the pace of development of education slowed down again due to economic and technical constraints.  Many teachers and foreign experts left the country and machinery and laboratory equipment for schools and training colleges could not be imported.31   Despite this in 1945 there were 345 primary schools and 2,564 teachers and even though no records are available to indicate the number of enrollments,32 some studies estimate the literacy rate to have escalated to 8 % of the population by 1948. At that time there were 2,728 teachers and 98,660 students enrolled in schools.33  This trend of an increase in the number of schools, teachers and students remained in the following years as well. In 1950 the total enrollment in grades one through twelve was 95,300 which included 4,350 girls.  By then the number of teachers had gone up to approximately 3000 and the number of schools had reached. In addition, there were 456 students including 40 female students enrolled in five institutes of higher learning.34

Post Second World War Afghanistan embarked on a more systematic development of education in which international cooperation played a significant role.   France, Germany, USA, USSR amongst others, also contributed in the development of education in Afghanistan. Furthermore, the first UNESCO Mission was invited by the government in 1949 to survey the state of education in the country.35

A more systematic planning of education, however, was initiated in 1956. The first five year Educational Development Plan (1956-1961) placed particular stress on developing primary education.36 In 1956 there were 762 primary and secondary schools in Afghanistan with an enrollment of 121,000 students of which about 111,000 (92%) were in the primary schools.37     In 1960 there were 175,600 students in 1,110 elementary schools of whom 19,900 were girls. Measures were also taken to expand the secondary level of education, particularly for the girls, as out of 11,300 students 2,500 were girls attending seventeen middle schools and eighteen secondary schools, which were double the numbers that existed a decade ago in 1950.38    Yet, the increase in the number of schools, teachers and students seems to have been insufficient in comparison to the requirement as the literacy rate barely rose from 8% of the population which had been achieved in 1948.

Table 2

No.         PROVINCE           %age

1.            Kabul     5.9%

2.            Kandhar               0.9%

3.            Herat     3.0%

4.            Mazir-I-Sharif    3.0%

5.            Nangarhar           2.1%

6.            Paktya  0.8%

7.            Kataghan             3.4%

8.            Ghazni  3.3%

9.            Girishk  1.3%

10.          Farah     3.6%

11.          Maimana             0.7%

12.          Shibarghan         Not Available

13.          Badakhshan       2.6%

14.          Parwan 1.5%

15.          Bamiyan               3.8%

16.          Uruzgan               0.6%

17.          Ghor      3.1%

Total = 39.6

Weightage average for all provinces except Shibargan was 2.5%.

In view of the country’s need for human resource, the second five year plan (1962-1967) focused on secondary, technical and higher education. The third five year development plan (1968-1973) envisaged a balanced expansion of education at all levels affecting different activities of the country. Primary education expanded according to the plan; however, growth in secondary education was faster.39

The statistics of 1969 reveal that at primary level, instead of anticipated enrollment of 318,000, the figure of primary level students touched as high as 444,000. Similarly the middle level expectation of 42,000 had become 44,000 and the high school level expectation of 9,200 had increased to 10,000. The number of students rose from 462,585 in 1966 to 719,744 in 1971,40  and that of the teachers rose from 9,907 to 20,744 in the same period.41    These numbers clearly indicate the responsiveness of Afghan society to the systematic planning of education which was initiated in 1956. The following table (Table 3) of the three five year development plans, covering the period 1956-1972, is reflective of the gradual increase of student enrollment at different stages.42

Table 3

STUDENT ENROLLMENT

Plan I (1956-1961) Plan II (1962-1967) Plan III (1968-1972)

Years     1956       1960       1967       1972

Primary                111,650 213,100 444,240 540,700

Secondary           5,730     14,100   54,400   107,600

Vocational           1,950     2,500     5,700     5,200

Teacher Education           1,000     3,900     5,600     4,170

Higher Education              760         1,700     4,320     6,600

Total      121,090 235,300 514,260 664,270

The expansion of the educational sector in various levels resulted in an increase in the literacy rate to approximately 11% of the population (from six years to over sixty five years) by 1972-74. The literacy rate of males was 18.7%, however, that of females was still 2.8%.  A total of only 4% of this group (6% of males and 1% of females) had finished sixth grade. 2% of males and less than 1% of females had managed to complete twelfth grade and around 1% of males had obtained at least one year of education beyond secondary level.43

In 1975, following the formation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, the development of human resources, including technical and vocational education, was considered a priority in the seven year plan which was interrupted in 1978 due to a coup d’état.44 By that time Afghanistan’s secondary school system was churning out nearly 20,000 graduates per year. Less than half of these graduates could find places in Universities or post-secondary schools45. At the same time about

17,600 teachers of varying qualifications were teaching approximately 650,000 elementary school students. The level of enrollment was still low,  considering the  estimated total population of  15-16  million.46

However, there were 115,125 Afghans with at least 12 years of formal education. The total number of students in 1976 was 888,800.  Among them were 15,000 students who attended institutions of higher education. Approximately the same number of students were enrolled in military schools and abroad.47 At the end of 1977 the political situation worsened in Afghanistan and as a result many schools had no buildings and the majority of the students were without desks, chairs, books and other instructional material. To reduce the pressure on the education system and the labor market, the government instituted an examination at the end of eighth grade to select students that could apply for secondary school admissions. This examination was called Concours and its aim was to prevent most children from entering the ninth grade. However, the resultant pool of dropouts or screened students was captured by many vocational schools.48  The situation of literacy by 1977/78, however, shows a stable increase as is reflected in the following table (Table 4).

Table 4

PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION LITERATE (1977/78).

Male      Female Total

1)            Urban   36.2%    15.7%    26.8%

2)            Rural      16.2%    1.6%      9.5%

3)            Total      26.8%    3.7%      12.2%

In this situation however the percentage of children aged 6-14 attending school was as follows;

I. All Afghanistan:             24%

II. Rural Afghanistan:      20%

III. Girls in Rural Afghanistan:      3-4 %

Education Policy and Administration

On the eve of independence of Afghanistan the concept of modern education emerged in the country with a view to prepare a group of people that would help the government run and face new challenges. Soon these parameters changed to the extent that it was realized that society, on the whole, needed access to western education in order to build the nation on modern lines. Independence provided an opportunity in the country for this policy be implemented.  The constitution adopted thereafter made primary education compulsory and the government responsible for the control and supervision of all schools and educational institutions.49   In addition, by 1948 the state controlled the administration of all education and training programs from primary schools to university levels50  and by 1964 every citizen of Afghanistan was entitled to free secondary and higher education.  Education opportunities were made available to all, irrespective of gender, race, religion or social status. Citizens were also permitted to establish technical and literacy schools. 51  Furthermore, the state attempted to generalize primary education and tried to achieve balanced development of secondary education. In keeping with the opportunities and requirements vocational and craft education were also expanded in the country.52

Soon after independence the entire educational system was made highly centralized under the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education  was  also  responsible  for  policy  formation,  organization and supervision. Both university and non-university higher education institutions were directly administered by the Minister of Higher Education who appointed the administrative and academic staff53. The administration in provinces was carried out by Directors of Education who reported to the Ministry of Education and thus primary, secondary and vocational education was administered by Ministry of Education.54

However, in 1947 the Ministry of Education was reorganized and separate departments for primary, secondary and vocational education including teacher training were established. In the mid 1960s the organization of the Ministry of Education was further restructured and developed. This structure, as illustrated in Figure 1, remained in effect till 1978.

Organization of the Ministry of Education (1947-978)

Minister

Advisor Deputy Minister for Academic Affairs

Deputy Minister for Administration

Higher Education

Primary Education

Secondary Education

Technical & Vocational Education

Teacher Education *

Adult literacy *

Educational Planning *

Textbook Development

Provincial Directorates of Education

Organization 1947-1978

* Departments added in 1960s

During this period, from 1940 onwards, education was imparted at various levels to cater to different age groups as indicated in figure

2. This structure remained almost the same for a long period and was changed only after the Communist regime took over when the twelve classes up to the secondary level were reduced to ten.55

Figure 2

Structure of Education in Afghanistan

Primary education

Grades 1-6, Age 7-12

Middle Level, Grades 7-9, Age 13-15

Including Vocational, Mechanical and Crafts

General Secondary Education, Grades 10-12, Age 16-18

General                Tech. & Voc.

Teacher Training

Work

Crafts    Primary Teacher Training

Technical             Technological Schools

Agricultural         Theological Schools

Commercial        Physical Education

Arts                        (13-16)

Finance

According to the law, education from primary to university level, was free and financed by the government. The financing of education has been a major constraint for the qualitative and quantitative development of education in Afghanistan. Afghan governments had limited resources to invest in this sector; nonetheless, occasionally up to ten percent of the national budget was used for this sector.56   Besides several commercial companies, like the Afghan National Bank and philanthropists made donations for educational purposes.57  Afghanistan has been a recipient of considerable foreign aid to develop its educational system. The donors included the United States, Western European countries, most of Eastern Europe, the wealthier Muslim nations and the principal Asian states.58     Multilateral and inter- governmental programs such as the Columbia plan for economic development in South and South East Asia also provided assistance for technical teaching programs. Afghanistan also received foreign assistance in the form of educational advisors, teaching staff and equipment.59

Student Financial Assistance

As education in Afghanistan was free, all the expenses of various institutions were borne by the government. No tuition fee was charged and about 20 percent of the students received, over and above the benefits of free education, free books and other materials, stipends.60   It is said that Habibia College students studying general courses used to receive twenty Afghanis per month as stipend for the first year, thirty for the second, and forty for the third year while faculty students pursuing military courses used to get monthly stipends of fifty Afghanis, free meals and clothing.61 The government also provided a number of study grants to cover room and board expenses for students studying abroad and awarded scholarship to students based on merit and requirement. In  addition  to  the  Afghan  government,  foreign  governments  and their universities as well as relevant divisions of the United Nations also provided scholarships for undergraduate and post graduate study abroad.62

State of education from 1978-1991

In April 1978 the Communist regime took over. This was followed by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. This had drastic affects on the pace and development of education which degenerated to what the state of affairs had been   nearly seventy years earlier.63

Afghan society and socio-religious activities, including education, suffered enormously. The formation of the Communist government in Afghanistan was considered as a threat to the traditions and values of the people and thus it faced strong opposition by the majority of the population. As a result of the fighting that ensued it is estimated that more than a million peoples lost their lives and much of the basic social and economic infrastructure, including approximately two thirds of schools, were destroyed.64

The communist regime attempted to pursue the previous policy of imparting free and to compulsory education,65 however, this goal could not be achieved due to the turmoil and shortage of schools and teaching personnel.66 As a result of continuous warfare schools were demolished throughout the country on a large scale. According to Shah Mahmud, the foreign minister of the regime, fifty percent of the schools in Afghanistan were destroyed in 1984.67  Thus the damage to the infrastructure for primary education, especially in rural areas was substantial. It is reported that in 1978 before the Communist government took over, more than one million students were enrolled in different types of institutions; of them 995,650 were in primary schools, and 152,750 out of them were girl students, studying in 3352 primary schools68.    29,900 male and female teachers were employed for primary schools alone. However, the overall enrolment in schools and higher education institutions in Afghanistan declined to around 700,000 by 1985 due to the mass exodus and fighting69.  Many fled from the rural areas and took refuge in the capital, as a result schools in Kabul became overcrowded.   From 291 students per school in 1978 the numbers escalated to 1068 per school in 199070. The number of female teachers in Kabul tripled as most of the male teachers were either killed or defected to foreign countries71. It is also said that qualified teachers left Afghanistan and regular instruction in senior schools no longer existed.72   On the whole, however there was a decrease in the teacher- student ratio in the schools as the number of schools decreased as well. This is illustrated in the following table, depicting the primary education scenario of the country (Table 5). These schools, however, were mainly operational in urban areas.73

Table 5

Region No. of

Schools

%age

Fall

No. of Teachers %age

Fall

No. of Students.pr* %age

Fall

1978 1990 1978 1990 1978 1990
North east 520 81 84 3,667 967 74 123,474 59,777 52
North 550 138 75 3,031 2,038 33 129,595 81,069 37
West 333 95 71 2,938 926 68 83,548 57,224 32
East central 237 08 97 1,022 73 93 34,230 6,872 80
Central 503 87 83 10,032 9,466 08 349,570 349,671 00
East 356 93 74 3,344 865 74 97,686 22,963 76
South 330 44 87 2,891 251 91 84,633 17,929 79
South west 523 40 92 2,708 250 81 92,917 27,008 71
Total 3,352 586 83 29,907 15,106 49 995,653 622,513 59

*pr. Primary Schools

These figures demonstrate that modern education suffered during more than a decade long period of the Communist Soviet regime even though the government in Kabul announced various programmes to enhance the literacy rate in Afghanistan.

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan which came into being with the objective of transforming Afghan society, considered education as a fundamental instrument of government policy.  When the Soviets took over, educational and administrative advisors poured into the capital and tried their utmost to alter the traditional ways of Afghan life and formulated an educational policy which adopted the Soviet model of education74. In order to facilitate close collaboration in education and training, plans were announced to eradicate illiteracy by expanding education, science and technology, physical education and the arts, and adopting the Soviet culture.75    In 1979 the government reaffirmed its intention to eliminate illiteracy among males by 1990.76  A National Commission of Education for literacy was established in early 1979. Under this programme, 18,500 teachers were employed to teach people to read and write. The campaign was at its peak at the beginning but it came to a halt in the spring of 1979 due to a country wide opposition to the Communist regime and the fighting that followed.77  The Kabul regime also introduced nurseries and kindergartens.   Kindergartens were basically created for the children of working women and nurseries were for the orphans of those parents that were killed by the Afghans for their pro-regime association78. In November 1984 the regime announced that a number of children of martyrs in the path of revolution (pro-regime associates) had left for the Soviet Union to study for ten years.79     In addition, 870 boys and girls, between the ages of seven and nine, and thirty five male and female teachers were also sent to the Soviet Union for different educational programmes80. This practice continued  and  thereafter  young  Afghans  were  also  sent  annually to the USSR for elementary, secondary and vocational education programmes.  In addition, boys aged ten to fourteen were also sent to the Soviet Union to receive training in weaponry for a period of six months.81  Notwithstanding these efforts, the educational scenario in Afghanistan was becoming worst. There was a decrease of students in primary education (Table 5), because of the political situation that prevailed in the country and the opposition of the people to measures adopted by the regime. For example, the literacy programme announced by the government for eradicating illiteracy by 1990 suffered most as neither official nor private organization were fully equipped for such a massive task82. Likewise night schools for adults and some specialized courses offered outside Kabul could not function as there was a shortage of qualified teachers.  Some night schools were inaugurated with the primary objective of dispensing ideological education, however, they were badly organized and offered nothing substantial.83

Administration

The government put the education system under the administration of the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education as was the case earlier.  However, both the ministries had a number of Soviet advisors and experts in different areas of education84, including the planning and management of education, research, curriculum and text book development, etc85.

Curriculum

The Soviets introduced their own educational system. Time allotted to  subjects like  religious teachings was  decreased as  compared to the pre-1978 time table (table 6). Under the new time table Russian/ Spanish received the largest time slot.  The earlier curriculum was modified by introducing a number of subjects such as Russian, Spanish, political science, etc. All text books were rewritten by Soviet advisors. History presented a dialectical materialistic view of events, geography emphasized more study of Russia, and subjects in natural sciences also became compulsory.

Table 6

The Curriculum of General Education (1980) and Periods per week

Subjects               I               II             III            IV            V             VI            VII          VIII         XI            X

Theology             1              1              1              1              2              2              2              2              –              –

Russian language             12           12           10           10           4              4              4              3              1              1

Literature            –              –              –              –              3              3              3              4              4              2

Pashtu/ Dari       –              –              –              –              2              2              2              2              2              2

Mathematics     6              6              6              6              6              6              6              6              6              6

History  –              –              –              2              2              2              2              2              2              2

Social Sciences  –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              1              2

Nature Study     –              –              2              2              –              –              –              –              –              –

Geography         –              –              –              –              2              3              2              2              2              –

Physics/ Astronomy        –              –              –              –              –              3              3              2              4              6

Chemistry           –              –              –              –              –              –              2              2              2              3

Biology –              –              –              –              2              2              2              2              2              2

Technical Drawing            –              –              –              –              –              –              1              1              1              –

Spanish Language            –              –              –              –              3              2              2              3              3              4

Music & Arts      2              2              2              2              2              2              –              –              –              –

Physical Education           2              2              2              2              2              2              2              2              3              3

Skills Development         2              2              2              2              2              2              2              2              2              2

Total      25           25           25           27           32           35           35           35           35           35

This curriculum and the time slot given to various classes in schools made Russian language mandatory while less  emphasis was  given to religious education as compared to the past.86    The other foreign language introduced in the curriculum was Spanish87. Political science was introduced in secondary schools in which the students learned more about Marxism-Leninism and history of the communist movement.88

Scientific sociology, the interpretation of the society based on class struggle, was also added.89   Quoting a former High School student from Ghazni it is reported that the students were ordered to read progressive books and text books printed in USSR including rewritten Afghan history.90    All western teachers were expelled and emphasis was laid on appointment of teachers who were either confirmed Communists or followed government instructions.91

The Soviets changed not only the curricula in Afghanistan but also the structure of the education system and examinations.92 The structure of general education as established in 1975 was changed from the 8+4 to the 4+4+2 system, whereby, general education was reduced from twelve to ten years. This consisted of three levels: primary school (grades 1-4), middle school (grades 5-8) and secondary school (grades 9-10).93 Further, those students, between the ages of seventeen and eighteen years, who joined the Communist party were exempt from entrance examinations for universities.  Announcements were also made on Radio Kabul, in early 1982, that all 10th  grade high school dropouts volunteering for two years of military service would be granted a 12th  grade certificate, while those in the 11th grade could enter college or university.94  Further, Russian style examinations were introduced in Kabul University. That resulted in vide spread irregularities and resentment amongst university students95.

Higher Education

As was the case earlier, the Ministry of Higher Education was responsible universities and other institutions of higher learning. However, the University of Kabul was reorganized whereby the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Education were dissolved in 1982. The polytechnic institute was made a separate autonomous institution. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Kabul and related institutions were reorganized as the Kabul Medical institute.96     The Russians approved all important academic policies and exercised direct control over the formation of a new academic curriculum. Text books were published under their supervision97. Changes were introduced in the curricula of the Faculties of Social Science, Theology, Economics and Law. New subjects were introduced such as historical materialism, the revolutionary history of workers, history of Russia, Russian, Spanish, a new history of Afghanistan, etc98.  Verses of Holy Quran dealing with Jihad were omitted from the curriculum emphasis was given to such topics that conveyed a skewed interpretation of Islam99. Anti Islamic subjects like historical materialism, the history of revolutionary movements, scientific sociology which were taught by the Soviets themselves had replaced classical studies such as philosophy and ethics100. Afghan Professors at the Kabul University were replaced by Soviets and other Eastern bloc specialists. Teachers and students were also subject to arrest and political surveillance. Many Eastern bloc professors filled the vacancies. As a result, by 1983, sixty percent of faculty members were from Socialist countries.101    The departure of a large number of native and western professors resulted in the deterioration of higher education. In 1978 the Kabul University had some 750 teaching staff members after which there was a sharp decline in university staff.  It is said that between 1978 and 1984, 276 had left the country, 36 were executed and 6 were imprisoned. Therefore, approximately 49 percent of the Afghan academic staff of Kabul University was living in exile.102     By 1990

Afghanistan had lost a total number of 31,019 teachers and professors and 968,080 students from all levels of education and 5354 schools and millions of text books were destroyed because of the war.103    In 1982, only 500 B.A. students graduated from Kabul University.  An entire generation of future Afghan doctors, scientists, teachers, leaders and administrators were being denied their right to education.104    The total number of students in the Kabul University was reduced in 1984 from 14000 to 6000. A majority of them were girls as the boys were recruited for military services.105

However, during the mid 1980s the regime realized the need for higher education institutions and, therefore, established three new universities in the country: in Balkh (1986), in Heart (1988) and in Kandhar (1991).106   In addition to this, new faculty members were added to the polytechnic institute and the number of students in polytechnic increased from 1200 in 1978 to 3000 in 1984. However, the students were being admitted on recommendation of party members of the regime.107     Enrolment in these institutions of higher learning reached to 14600 students in 1990 as against the 6000 in 1984. Of them Kabul university had about 10,000 students, sixty percent of them female and 620 teachers.108   Overall roughly ten percent of students were members of the PDPA, (Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan).109 In the 1980s sixteen technical and vocational schools were established with the help of USSR.  By 1990 only 3000 graduated from there whereas the total enrolment was 12,000 students.110  The Soviets had facilitated academic grants and scholarship for Afghans to study in the USSR and Eastern bloc.  In late 1981 Afghanistan represented the largest contingent of students in the Eastern bloc from developing countries.111    By the end of 1983 an estimated 20,000 Afghans were sent there for training and further education. However, it is argued that most of these students went to these countries just to avoid military services.112 In 1986 a U.S. state department analyst estimated that thousands of Afghans were being sent forcibly to the USSR annually.113

All these measures to educate the young people of Afghanistan in Eastern bloc countries resulted in an overall increase in the literacy rate, however, the primary education sector continued to suffer.  The students who received education in the Eastern bloc may have raised this percentage, however, their exact numbers are not reflected in any analyses/studies. The upside of this scenario is that a sizable number of girls received both primary and higher education during this period of turmoil, particularly in cities like Kabul.

State of education from 1991-2000

After the Soviet withdrawal in 1989 the Communist regime remained albeit in a limited capacity in Kabul. In early 1992 it finally collapsed. When the Mujahedin took over in April 1992, the infrastructure for education was virtually non-existent in the country due to the war.114

In 1991 there were 577 primary schools with an enrollment of 628,000 students and 182,000 students in secondary schools and institutes of higher education.115  In 1993 there was a slight increase in their numbers as a total of 684,000 students including 74,670 girls (11%) were enrolled in primary schools in Afghanistan.116     The importance of education was emphasized by the Mujahedin regime, however, equal education opportunities for boys and girls were neither available nor provided. The previous education policy was revised and religious education was prioritized.117    The provision of education for girls was inevitably much less than that for boys.118 However, there was an overall increase in the girl student ratio for primary classes from 1993.  According to a report of the Ministry of Education in 1994/95 there were 628,660 students among whom 168,820 were girls. Out of the 11,548 teachers employed 6,662 were female teachers in primary schools.119     Likewise, in the secondary education sector there was an enrollment of 282,340 students (85,692 girls) with 5,926 teachers120. Besides this 5,300 male and female students were trained in Teacher Training Colleges whereas 10,700 students were registered in the higher education institutes of Afghanistan in 1995.121

The obvious reason behind the change that took place in the education sector was the regime’s desire to protect the cultural norms of society and the repatriation of teachers amongst the refugees. This change, particularly in the increased number of girls attending schools was apparent more so in urban areas such as Heart where 21,663 girls attended primary schools as opposed to 23,347 boys, in 1994.122     In contrast, the ratio had no really changed that much in rural areas where only 1,940 girls were attending school as compared to 74,620 boys, however, a significant proportion of teachers were women.123     According to Ahmad Rashid, in 1993, there were 1,500 girls studying in two shifts in the Atun Heirvi school in Herat due to a lack of class rooms, desks, books and paper.124    The primary school ratio increased for boys from 35% in 1990 to 63% in 1995 while that of the girls was erratic.125    Despite the flexible policy adopted by the Mujahedin government, Afghanistan’s literacy rate was still the lowest in Asia in 1996.126

While these reforms in education were being implemented the political scenario changed once again in Afghanistan with the emergence of the Taliban in October 1994. By the end of 1994 they captured Kandhar and immediately issued orders for the closure of girl’s schools and a ban on women working in all public places except for the health sector.127

According to Ahmad Rashid, only three girls schools remained after the Taliban shutdown 45 in Kandahar alone. The girl’s schools Herat faced a similar fate when the Taliban took over the city in September 1995.128

The Taliban captured Kabul on 26-27 September 1996.  By 1997 more than two thirds of the country was under their control. Under their regime females were not allowed to work and their schools and universities were shutdown.129    They argued that education for women required separate facilities and security and that they were not able to provide the same at that time, therefore, the ban was imposed temporarily on women’s education.130      According to a survey conducted, in May 1996, Kabul had 158 schools where 148,223 boys and 103,256 girls were taught by 11,208 teachers of whom 7,793 were women.131

In addition 10,000 students were enrolled in the University of Kabul in September 1996, of whom 4000 were women and 360 professors of which 60 were women.132

There were also approximately 1,800 girls studying at Balkh University in Mazir-i-Sharif, the only other operational university in the country. However, this university was shut down by the Taliban in 1997.133    At that time, in Kabul alone, women constituted 70% of the total strength of teachers, therefore, their ban on working, even in schools, effected boys schools and education as well.134 The Taliban also shut down vocational training programmes such as carpet weaving and sewing projects for girls.  Girls (ages eight and younger) were allowed to study only the Quran in schools established by the regime.135  In March 1997 when schools reopened after the winter breaks, headmasters were directed not to register girls and Kabul University opened with no female students or teacher.136    The girls suffered mostly in urban areas where the Taliban had more control. In the rural areas the Taliban’s attitude towards girl’s education was more lenient as they depended on the support of rural tribal chiefs, many of whom insisted that the schools remain open.137

By 1998 some girl’s schools were allowed to operate with the approval of district or provincial authorities.138     Due to enormous pressure from the international community and growing demands from the local population, the Taliban moderated their policies to an extent whereby some schools for girls between the ages of six to ten were being operated by the Ministry of Religious Affairs.139  The main component of studies in these schools was the Quran and subjects such as mathematics, science, and social science were taught but at a very elementary level.140   There were, however, no schools offering secondary or tertiary education for girls and the only non-primary education available was the training for nurses.141    In the East Afghanistan, however, Pashtuns were proud to send their girls to school and many continued to do so, even under the Taliban, by running the village schools themselves. In these areas aid agencies such as the SCA (Swedish Committee for Afghanistan) supported some 600 primary schools with 150,000 students of whom 30,000 were girls. The Taliban governors could not object to the demands of the Pashtun tribal elders.142   On the whole, females suffered the most and even if some dared to go to schools they would do so at the risk of being flogged or executed by the regime.143   In a population of over two million people in Kabul, barely a few thousand girls received some form of education by the year 2000.  UNICEF provided education material and training to support primary education through non-formal channels in the Taliban areas and through formal channels in non-Taliban areas to cater to the needs of over 130,000 children of whom 30% were girls; such girl schools operated in secret as well.144    In the cities education for girls in private homes operated quietly, where students and women had a chance to converge.145    Mostly female teachers gave lectures to neighborhood students.146    This experiment spread in many areas and included thousands of girls and boys147, as the conditions in government schools for boys were deplorable.  These private home schools were initiated by the communities and often helped by non governmental agencies with money and material.148  It is reported that, by 2000, various NGO’s/ agencies were supporting 1,264 primary schools and basic education centers in about 22 provinces in Afghanistan. In 1999/ 2000 there were 112,115 students including 21,314 girls enrolled in these schools.149     These efforts, however, remained insufficient as the total educational scenario could not attain the trend and pace of educational development that a country requires.   Therefore, the overall literacy rate fell to 36 percent in 2000 as compared to forty seven percent in 1995. Among these fifty one percent were male and twenty one percent female.150

More than two decades of fighting had left the education system of Afghanistan devastated.  Since 1979 two thousand schools were destroyed and during these two decades about thirty two percent of boys and eight percent of girls were receiving some form of primary schooling.151    In addition to this Afghanistan lost an estimated 20,000 experts and academicians while its seventeen higher educational institutes were devastated by conflict. Thousands of teachers and education administrators left the country after the Taliban took over.152

The development of education during the 1990s was hampered further by continuous fighting amongst different political and ethnic factions throughout the country.  The destruction and insecurity caused by this fighting in Kabul and other provincial cities hampered educational development.153   During this period the education sector in the country was characterized by limited human and financial resources, the absence of a national education policy and curricula at pre-university levels, the un-preparedness of the authorities to rehabilitate educational infrastructure and the discriminatory official policies banning female students from all levels of education.154   Illiteracy was a major problem before the Taliban appeared, affecting ninety percent of girls and sixty percent of boys. There were huge swaths of rural Afghanistan where schools had been destroyed in the war.  The Taliban’s gender policies only worsened the ongoing crises in the country side.155

Education of Afghan Refugees

After the coup de’tat of 1978 and the subsequent occupation by Soviet troops a significant proportion of the Afghan population took refuge in neighboring countries. The exodus began in 1979, and by the early 1980s about six million Afghan refugees were living in Pakistan and Iran, approximately three million people in each country.156

During the first two years after the invasion (1980-1981) education for their children was not the primary concern of the refugees. However, soon international organizations encouraged  the  Pakistani  Commissioner of Afghan refugees to build schools for them. Following this, many refugee camps in Pakistan were provided with primary, middle, and high schools for boys and girls.157   In addition, a few secondary schools were opened by Afghan political organizations in Peshawar.158  According to UNHCR, by the end of 1985 the overall enrollment in refugee schools was 90,000, of whom 6,214 were girls. However, by the end of 1986 the enrollment had risen to 100,000;159  therefore, approximately 10 % of the refugee children were attending these schools.   In addition to these, the International Rescue Committee was running an experimental high school for refugees in Pakistan, enrolling about 200 students per year.160    In 1998 there were 472 primary schools, 145 middle schools, and 3 secondary schools with 3,024 teachers for Afghan refugees in NWFP alone; of these 76 schools were for girls with a total enrollment of 7,168 students while 94,427 boys were enrolled in primary schools. In Baluchistan, for instance, there were one hundred primary schools and forty five middle schools with a total enrollment of 14,652 (666 girls), and 480 teachers.  Most of the teachers were Afghans.161    Some of Afghans living in cities such as Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and Karachi were sending their children to Pakistani schools where courses were taught in Urdu and English was taught as a second language.162    The Mujahedin parties also established a few schools in the camps as well as in Peshawar, Quetta and Islamabad for the refugees teaching in Dari/Pashtu medium which attracted a sizable number of children.  Approximately 10,000 students were enrolled in these schools in 1985.163 Opportunities for Afghan students in post secondary and higher education institutes in Pakistan were limited.  However, in 1999 the Afghan community established the Afghan University in Peshawar where 1,511 males and

518 female students were enrolled for higher education.164   While these measures benefited a small percentage of Afghan children (ages 6 to 12) in Pakistan, young Afghans between the ages of 13 to 22 remained idle with no opportunities to complete their schooling.165    Vocational training and income generating projects were, therefore, established by certain non-government agencies to provide training in modern and traditional skills and techniques, to enable refugees to augment their otherwise meager incomes.166

The curriculum and text books developed during the 1980s for use in schools for Afghan refugees in Pakistan were studied by a UNICEF consultant. There was however, no uniform curriculum for Afghan children. The primary school curriculum consisted of various subjects; Holy Quran, Islamiyat, Arabic, Arithmetic, English, Science, Social Science, Physical education and Art and Drawing, depending upon who established the school167. In the few secondary schools run by resistance parties history was not taught at all, mathematics and physics were more or less tolerated and geography was avoided as much as possible.168

The text books for Afghan refugees in Pakistan however gave extensive coverage to Islamic subjects.

Afghan refugees in Iran were not as successful in getting permission to open schools for their children. Most of these children got education in Iranian schools.169   According to the Iranian government statistics only 19% of Afghans who entered the country as refugees after 1979 were literate while by 1992 their literacy rate had increased to 41.4%. In 1989-1992 only one third of the 600,000 were enrolled in schools. In 1992 the number of Afghan students in Iranian schools (primary and secondary) was 90,477 including 56,870 females whereas in 1998 the enrollment of Afghans increased to 113,195 students (51,980 male and 61,227 female). The Government of Iran also established some schools in refugee camps, located outside Tehran, where in 1998 about 3000 students were studying. Out of an estimated total of 500,000 registered Afghan children in Iran (aged between 6-15) 154,600 attended schools in the year 1998. However, only a small number of Afghan refugees had access to higher education facilities in Iran.170   The Literacy Movement Organization, an institution of the Ministry of Education in Iran, also provided literacy and life skill classes to nearly 12,000 Afghan women and girl refugees in the year 1999 with UNICEF support.171  Educational projects included a pilot mobile library scheme in the two provinces of Sistan and Kerman with about 10,000 books. The mobile library was provided more than 5,500 children an opportunity to read and learn.172

The UNHCR and other UN agencies as well as a number organization of foreign governments in cooperation with the host countries provided education and training for Afghan refugees in camps, villages and towns. The UNHCR provided financial assistance to the governments for the provision of textbooks, equipment, educational supplies and the construction of primary schools in refugee settlements.173    Afghan refugees that settled in Western countries e.g. the United States, Germany, France, etc. used the educational facilities of the host countries. The children, therefore, spoke English, German, and French as they had no means to learn and be taught in their mother tongue.174

Pattern of Education

Primary Education

Modern primary education did not develop until the 1950s and the introduction of the Five Year Development Plans.175     During the later years of monarchy, from the 1940s through the 1960s, a marked progress was recorded in providing schooling for a growing percentage of the school age population, with enrollments rising from 62,000 in 1940 to 500,000 by the late 1960s.176    In 1975 approximately 30% of the children attended primary education, which represented 25% of the compulsory school age population (7-14 years). The overall annual rate of growth in primary school enrollment in Afghanistan in 1960s and 1970s was 13%177. The number of teachers in primary schools was 18,138 in 1970178. This trend of growth was hampered from 1978 onwards due to political instability as is shown in the following table.

Table 7

Year Schools Teachers Pupils

Male                Female

Total
1940 300 1,750 56,100 900 5700
1951 325 3,000 87,444 3,970 91,414
1956 734 3,600 107,100 8,900 116,000
1960 1,113 5,054 155,719 19,939 175,658
1965 1,878 7,124 303,739 54,298 358,037
1970 3,020 13,116 464,542 76,143 540,685
1975 3,371 18,553 668,773 11,795 784,568
1980 3,824 35,364 917,413 198,560 1,115,993
1985 792 15,581 401,472 179,027 580,449
1990 NA 16,500 414,332 214,561 682,893
1993 2202 23,248 609,329 74,776 683,996
1999 3,684 26,385 811,495 64,110 875,605

Primary education in Afghanistan covered the first six years of a child’s schooling (between the ages 7-8 to 13-14).   Primary schools provided education for the purpose of imparting literacy and elementary knowledge about religion, numeracy, language, etc, and for preparing students for secondary education.179        Class teachers taught the first three grades, while subject teachers carried taught the upper grades. The average class size was forty.  There was an examination at the end of each year. However, at the end of sixth year the director of education conducted an examination leading to a certificate of primary school.180

The structure of education in Afghanistan consisted of four years of primary, three years of middle, and three years of secondary schooling till early 1940. In 1941 a structure of 6+3+3 was adopted,181  which remained unchanged until the reform in education in 1975, whereby a structure of eight years of primary education and four years of secondary education was adopted.182    Thereafter, from 1979 onwards, primary classes were for 4 years, middle classes for 4 years and secondary classes for 2 years (4+4+2) this was changed from 1986-90 into 5+4+2 and 6+3+3 after the formation of Mujahedin government.183

Curriculum

The department of primary education prescribed the curriculum for primary schools. The syllabi and textbooks were uniform throughout the country, except for the languages of instruction, which were either Pashtu or Dari, depending on the region.184   The curriculum in primary schools till 1978 covered 28 hours a week of instruction for grades one to three and 30 hours for grades four to six. During the first three years, four hours a week were devoted to religion, twelve to language studies, four to arithmetic, four to writing, three to drawing and handicraft and one hour to physical education.   In higher grades fewer hours were spent on language studies and on writing, and the time saved was used for arithmetic, history, geography, natural sciences. The primary school subjects with a weekly time allocation as applied in the 1960s is presented in the following table.

Table 8

The curriculum of primary education (periods per week)

Subject Grades

Subject Grades

I                   II               III                IV                V                  VI

Holy Quran 04 04 04 05 05 05
Pashtu* 12 12 12 05 04 05
Dari* 05 05 05
Arithmetic/ Geometry 04 04 04 04 05 05
History 02 02 02
Geography 02 02 02
Science 02 02 02
Art 03 03 03 02 02 02
Calligraphy 04 04 04 02 02 01
Physical Education 01 01 01 01 01 01
Total 28 28 28 30 30 30

*Pashtu in Pashtu speaking areas and Dari in Dari speaking areas.

Secondary Education

In twenty five secondary schools185   in 1956, about 11,518 boys and 3,441 girls were enrolled with 631 teachers of whom 126 were women.186     During the 1960s there were 20,819 secondary school students in grades 10 to 12 showing a relatively significant expansion of secondary education during this period.187    In the 1970s there were 133 secondary schools with a total enrolment of 25,910 male and female students. The annual rate of growth in secondary education during the1960s and 1970s, a period of political modernization, was over twenty percent.188   The growth of general education in Afghanistan from 1940-1994 is given in the following table that shows the ups and downs in enrollment of students in the years following 1970s.

Table 9

Year Schools Lyc’ees Teachers Students

Male                Female

Total
1940 12 08 50 8,800
1950 41 17 143 2800 340 3,140
1955 43 17 230 4,900 1000 5,900
1960 52 28 650 13,590 3060 16,650
1965 200 28 1,197 27,530 6,450 33,930
1970 542 133 4,248 92,850 14,750 107,600
1975 3,800 77,680 9,870 87,550
1980 6,270 98,320 26,130 124,450
1985 5,715 71,790 33,240 105,030
1990 7,356 182,340
1994 196,650 85,690 282,340

Note: the enrolment in 1975 was lower than 1970 due to a change in the structure of secondary education (grades 7 and 8 not included).

The aim of secondary education was the development of self- reliance, moral values, mastery of the national culture, respect for work, and a sense of social justice and responsibility.189 Academic secondary schools called Lyc’ees also prepared students in grades 10 to 12 for higher studies.190

Organization

Secondary schools were organized in two cycles of grades 7 to 9 (middle school) and grades 10 to 12 (Lyc’ees) in separate schools for boys and girls.191    At the end of middle school and Lyc’ees, national examinations were organized and the successful candidates were awarded appropriate certificates. The average class size was 35 to 40 students per class. The size of secondary schools varied and most of them had enrolments of fewer than 1000 students. The few that had more enrolments were mainly in Kabul.192 Education reforms in 1975 abolished and the third year into the secondary school, thus extending secondary education to four years (grades 9 to 12).193   However, this structure was, thereafter, changed on three occasions (as mentioned earlier).

Curriculum

The middle school curriculum included subjects such as Dari, Pashtu, Arabic, other foreign languages, history, geography, economics, and sports.194     A Western language, usually English or German, was also taught. There were 35 periods a week of 45 minutes each.195  The curriculum of the Lyc’ees from 1960-1978 offered more courses in languages, social studies, science and mathematics as is presented in the fallowing (table 10).

Table 10

Subject Grades

X                                   XI                             XII

Theology 2 2 2
Pashtu(*) ¾ 3/4 3
Dari(*) ¾ 3/4 3
Foreign Language 6 6 4
Algebra 3 2 2
Trigonometry 4 4 3
Chemistry 1 2
Physics 3 3 3
Biology 3 3
Geology 3
History 2 2 2
Geography 2 2 2
Logic(Philosophy) 3
Physical Education 1 1 1
Total 36 36 36

(*) 3 periods per week in Pashtu speaking areas, and 4 p/w in Dari speaking areas and vice versa.

The language of instruction was Pashtu or Dari depending on the area. The Istiqlal Lyc’ee also taught some subjects in the upper grades in French and the Nejat Lyc’ee in German.196

Higher Education

Modern higher education in Afghanistan began with the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine in 1932, the first Medical College of the country,197 followed by the Faculty of Law (1938), the Faculty of Science (1942), and the Faculty of Letters 1944). These Faculties were the basis of the University of Kabul, when it was established in 1946.198

In 1947 a Women’s Faculty was organized for teacher training with two sections for science and social studies.199 The Faculty of Theology and Islamic Law was established in 1951.200  The institute of education was setup in 1955 and became a part of University of Kabul one year later. With the implementation of the first five year economic development plan in 1956 more attention was given to the development of higher education.201  New institutions were added to the University of Kabul such as the Faculty of Engineering (1956), the Faculty of Agriculture (1956), the Faculty of Economics (1957), the Faculty of Pharmacy (1959), the Faculty of Veterinary Science(1961), the Faculty of Education (1962), the Faculty of Home Economics and the Polytechnic Institute (1967).202   In 1962 the University of Kabul relocated to a new and modern campus in Ali Abad.203  Thereafter, there further growth in the development of higher education in Afghanistan. In 1963 a Faculty of Medicine, under the supervision of Kabul University was inaugurated in Nangarhar, which eventually became the University of Nangarhar in 1972. With the assistance of UNISCO and UNICEF several other training institutions were established in 1964,204    such as the Institute of Industrial Administration.205     In 1986 President Najibullah founded a new University in Balkh. Later the need for more higher education throughout the country was realized and two more universities were opened in Herat (1988) and in Kandhar (1991).206 during the 1960s and 1970s. The enrolment for higher education in 1960 was approximately 1700 male and female students. There was faculty of 171 academic staff of which 48 were from foreign countries.207  In 1962 university enrolment increased to 3000 students208  which further increased to 7,400 students with a teaching staff of 910 by 1970.209

In 1975 enrolment further increased to 12,260 students that included 1,680 female students; out of this, 8680 students were enrolled in the University of Kabul. In the same year there were 1100 academic staff members in higher education, including 64 female teachers.210 On the eve of the Communist coup in 1978, the Kabul University and polytechnic had more than 13,000 students and 1000 professors; 800 professors alone in Kabul University.211 In 1980 the number of students in higher education, per 100,000 inhabitants was 130, which was comparatively less than its neighbouring countries like Iran and Pakistan.212    This trend however continued even when Soviet forces had occupied the country. The following table presents the growth of higher education in Afghanistan from 1960 to 1995.

Table 11

Year University

Male          Female

Non-university

Male          Female

All Institutions

Male         Female

Total
1960 1,540 157 1,694
1965 2,603 646 202 2,805 646 3,451
1968 4,191 754 251 46 4,442 800 5,242
1970 5,339 876 1,358 259 6,697 1,135 7,832
1975 7,881 800 2,964 881 10,575 1,681 12,256
1977 8,768 1,583 2,965 3,101 11,463 4,684 16,147
1980 13,000 5,000 18,000
1986 19,182 3,124 22,306
1990 5,397 3,970 1,467 3499 16,864 7,469 24,333
1995 7,560 3,095 10,655

Administration

The entire educational system was highly centralized under the Ministry of Education. The Minister of Higher Education who appointed administrative and academic staff directly administered university education.213    The University of Kabul was headed by a President and the University of Nangarhar by a Chancellor. Faculties were headed by Deans and responsibility for academic affairs was vested in a council of Deans.214 Each Faculty of Kabul University established its curriculum and courses for different specializations and the Professors were responsible for the content of the courses and student evaluation. The curriculum and organization of teaching in the Faculties of medicine, science, economics, engineering, agriculture, education and the polytechnic were influenced by the experience of partner institutions, like Wyoming University, Columbia University, Lyon University, Bonn University, etc. Afghan professors lectured mainly in Dari or Pashtu while foreign professors lectured in their own languages (French, English, German or Russian) which were translated by Afghan counterparts.215

Admission Requirement

Admission to higher education was based on the secondary school leaving certificate and a University entrance test (concours).216     This examination was introduced in 1966 as the number of secondary school graduates had increased greatly.217 The university also admitted a number of foreign students in accordance to cultural exchange agreements. These students were not required to pass entrance examinations but required a secondary school leaving certificate.218

Teaching Staff and Research Activities

Members of the university teaching staff were classified as professors, assistant professors, lecturers, assistant lecturers, demonstrators and teaching assistants. All teachers were civil servants appointed by the government and salaries were based on academic rank and qualifications. The minimum qualification requirement for all members of teaching staff was bachelor’s degree.219   The condition for promotion was based on research and publications as well as three years of successful service. A research board was setup in 1967 which encouraged research at university level. The board provided advice to faculty members and students on planning and conducting projects and made arrangements for collaboration with foreign research scholars. The board composed of Professors and was financed by the university research fund.220   In the late 1960s different Faculties carried out some twenty scientific research projects. In addition to the relevant departments of the University two autonomous bodies, the Pashtu Tolana and the Afghan Historical Society were promoting and conducting research in the field of Afghan languages, literature and history.221

Students Financial Assistance

Like primary and secondary education, higher education in Afghanistan was free. The government provided a number of study grants to cover room and board expenses for students and also distributed many scholarships on merit and academic standing.222    The University of Kabul also provided some thirty scholarships per annum for those who were enrolled in Universities abroad. In the mid 1960s there were at least 2000 Afghan students studying abroad. Foreign countries as well as agencies within the Afghan government also provided such scholarships.223

Programmes and Degrees

The University of Kabul offered a bachelors degree after the successful completion of four years of post secondary education.224 The students of Engineering and Technology were required five years for their degrees while those pursuing medicine required seven years to get a masters degree, Doctor of Medicine. The only other advanced degrees offered were masters in Dari and Pashtu. The Nangarhar University, specialized in medicine only, and offered a seven year programme leading to the Doctor of Medicine.225

International Co-operation

To ensure the quality of higher education in scientific fields, the University of Kabul established technical co-operation and affiliation schemes with several universities abroad. The faculties of engineering and Agriculture were collaborating with the University of Wyoming. University of Columbia assisted in the establishment and development of the institute of education and the Faculty of Education.226 The Faculty of Medicine was assisted by the University of Lyon and the Faculty of Science had close ties with the University of Bonn.227 The Faculty of law established academic co-operation and exchange with the University of Paris. The Faculty of Economics was affiliated with the University of Köln.228 The Polytechnic Institute which was developed with the technical co-operation of the USSR was affiliated with the Lumumba University in Moscow,229 and the Faculty of Islamic Law was affiliated with the Al- Azhar University, Cairo. The arrangements provided assistance with the development of programmes and teaching material.230

Teacher Education

The first teacher training centre (Dar-ul Maullemin) for elementary school teachers was initiated in 1914231. In order to further improve the quality of education in schools and to train teachers on modern lines, King Amanullah established a teacher training college in 1927.232

By 1939, after a new building had been constructed in Kabul, this college had a capacity to train one thousand teachers.233    From1955 a team of specialists from Columbia University, New York were in Afghanistan, under a technical assistance programme with the United States to advise the Ministry of Education on the development of teacher education. The Columbia University had sponsored English language programs at secondary and university levels and also provided English teachers. UNESCO had also been active in programmes related to teacher training, technical training and teaching science.234  In the early 1970s Afghanistan expanded its teacher training program to prepare for the eventual replacement of foreign staff by Afghans in the nations school system. New teacher training schools and colleges were built as part of an extensive program to train new Afghan teachers and provide additional training for experienced teachers.235

Organisation

Primary school teachers were trained in teacher training institutions supervised by the Ministry of Education while secondary school teachers received their training from the university.  Admission requirements, duration of study and curriculum depended on the types and level of schools they were required to teach in, i.e. primary, middle, and secondary.236

Primary Teacher Training

For primary schools (grades 1-6) after acquiring a minimum of 9 years general education the prospective teachers were trained for one year at teacher training colleges.237 From 1968 a one year professional training course was initiated whereby a grade 13 degree was awarded teachers, after they had successfully completed grade12.238

Teacher Training for Middle Schools

Teachers for middle schools (grades 7-9) were trained in teacher training schools until the mid 1960s. After 1964 colleges were established to train teachers for the middle schools. The course was for two years, partly professional and partly academic and enabled them to study for grades 13-14.239

Teacher Training for Secondary Schools

The University of Kabul trained teachers for secondary schools (Lyc’ees) grades 10 to 12, in Faculties of Education, Science, Letters, and Humanities. These were co-education institutions with four year programmes and enabled them to study for grades 13 to 16. With the establishment of the Faculty of Education special pedagogical courses were offered to students of other Faculties.240   Supervisors for different subject areas were also trained by the faculty of Education. However science supervisors were trained at the Science Centre in Kabul. Most teacher training institutes had their own libraries.241

Training of Teacher Educators

With the expansion of teacher training institutions in the 1960s the provision of qualified staff for the same became an important consideration.  A  Teacher  Training  Academy  was  established  in 1964 where programs were designed to develop a corps of education specialists. University graduates who had one year teaching experience were admitted to the program to become educational specialists and instructors in teacher training programs.242 The course was for one year at the post-graduate level (grade 17).243   By 1970 the Academy had trained 160 teacher educators who were assigned to newly established teacher training institutions. The Faculty of Education also trained teachers for professional subjects.244

In-service Teacher Training

The Institute of Education instituted the in-service training programme in1955 for teachers who needed qualifications in general education or professional training. The programme consisted of extensive short term courses and part time courses that extended over several years.245 The Institute also offered a number of short time courses, workshops and seminars for science, mathematics and English language teachers and supervisors. The Faculty of Education conducted post secondary in-service training for teachers, supervisors and education administrators.246

Curriculum

The curriculum for primary school teacher education included psychology, teaching practice, Pashtu, Dari, English, history, geography, economics, mathematics, science, agriculture, health education, arts and crafts, and theology. In teacher colleges, in addition to these subjects, chemistry, biology, physics, teaching methods, physical education and library were also taught.247    These courses were designed on the basis of experiences of Afghan and foreign scholars and teachers. They were, however, continuously developed and adopted as per the needs.

Technical and Vocational Education

Modern vocational schools in Afghanistan were developed after WW1. A number of vocational and technical schools were established in the 1920s. Schools for Fine and Applied Arts were organized and other vocational schools founded from 1924 onwards in Kabul.248  An art school to teach drawing, music, sculpture and carpet weaving, a home economics school for women, and a police academy were all initiated in 1928.249   Other schools for dying, painting, hosiery, tailoring, interior decoration, telegraphy, engraving, lithography and architecture were also initiated in the country. Besides this there was an agricultural school (1944) which provided six years training in agriculture, horticulture and dairy farming and a school of medicine and pharmacy.250  Similar vocational schools were inaugurated in Jalalabad, Kandhar, Heart, Mazir i Sharif and Kataghan provinces.251     Some other specialized institutes were schools of commerce (1948), school of commerce and administration for girls, the Ibn Sina Experimental School, the school of trade craft252, Belqis Vocational School (1959) and hotel management schools (1963). There were two mechanic schools in Kandhar and a craft school in Farah.253  Further technical education was offered at the Afghan Institute of Technology, which provided a four year program (grades 9-13) in the fields of architecture, mechanics, electricity, construction, and motor and air craft repair. This institute was provided teachers and laboratory equipment by USAID. 254    From 1953 a Women’s Welfare Society was offering adult education classes for women. In 1960 it opened business courses, which included instruction in typing in Persian, Pashtu, and English.255    The development of technical and vocational education was a high priority in the five year economic development plans (1956-1976). Enrollment in vocational schools, however, dropped by two percent during this period as industry was unable to absorb the graduates from these institutes.256  In addition to general education, girls were also trained in sewing and knitting in some primary schools. From the 1960s agricultural and vocational subjects were also introduced in secondary schools.

Keeping up with a new vision of national socio-economic development, many secondary schools were changed into vocational institutions, focusing on agriculture and technical studies.257  Students who passed grade 12 of a vocational/commercial school could continue their studies at the Institute of Industrial Administration for a three year programme. The three year programme prepared students for management level positions in industry, banks and public administration.258

Besides local staff the government also recruited foreign teachers for these vocational schools. Italian, Japanese, and French teachers were employed in the agricultural schools.  Skilled workers were prepared by the Kabul mechanical school which was founded with the help of German specialists.259    Technical and vocational education in the Ministry of Education was organized at grades 7-9 and grades 10-12 for the training of skilled workers and technicians respectively. Technician training included one to two years of post secondary education. Most of the training was carried out in educational institutions which had semi- production workshops. A minimum of general education and social studies were required in all vocational education programmes. Basic science and mathematics and foreign language were also emphasized in the curriculum of technical programmes.260

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2              P.M.Zaheer and S.M.Y.Elmi, Afghanistan dar marif Tarikh, Kabul, 1960, pp.24-25.

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4              Martin Ewans, Afghanistan, a short history of its people and politics, London, 2001, p.57.

5              George Thomas Kurian, World Education Encyclopedia, New York, 1988, p.1453.

6              Vitaly Baskakov, A History of Afghanistan, Masco, 1985, pp.194-195.

7              George Thomas Kurian World  Education  Encyclopedia,  New  York,  1988, p.1453.

8              A History of Afghanistan, pp.194-195.

9              Saif R.Samady, Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, Paris, 2001, p.26.

10           Vartan Gregorian, The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, California, 1969, p186.

11           Gulgon wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul.1983, p.75.

12           Lyc’ee was a term used for Educational institution providing education for the last three years of the (6+3+3) educational system in Afghanistan, The EFA 2000 Assessment, Afghanistan Report Part. III: Cf.www2.unesco.org

13           Louis Dupree, Afghanistan, New Jersey, 1973, p.447.

14           Leon B. Poullada, Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, London, 1973, pp.72-73.

15           The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, pp.240-242.

16           Mir Ghulam Muhammad Ghobar, Afghanistan Dar masiri Tarikh (Afghanistan in the Course of    History), Kabul, pp.792-794.

17           Afghanistan Dar masiri Tarikh (Afghanistan in the Course of History), pp.792-794.

18           Gulgon wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul.1983, p.75.

19           The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, p.243.

20           Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, p.72.

21           Afghanistan, a short history of its people and politics, p.93.

22           Anwar Raja, The Tragedy of Afghanistan, London, 1988, pp.21-22.; Louis Dupree, Afghanistan, Princeton, 1980, pp.452-457.

23           Afghanistan, a short history of its people and politics, pp.99, 103-104.

26           Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul. 1983. P.76.

27           The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, p.307.

28           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.26.

29           Mohammad Ali, Progressive Afghanistan, Lahore, 1933, pp.185-187.

30           The World Bank, “Afghanistan, the Journey to Economic Development”, V.I, Washington D.C., 1977, p169.

31           “Education in Afghanistan”:Cf. www.reliefweb.int

32           Kabul Almanch, 1942-1943, p.62.and Kukhtina, pp.137-138.

33           UNESCO, “Basic Facts and Figures, Afghanistan”, (www.unesco.org).

34           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.27.

35           Wilber N.Donald, Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture, New Haven, 1962, pp.85-86.

36           Asa.S.Knowles, The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol 2(A) London, 1977, p.191.

37           Afghanistan, Ministry of Education in Afghanistan during the last 50 years, V.I, Kabul, 1968, p.23.

38           Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture, p.85.

39           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.28.

40          Afghanistan, Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics, 1972, p.13, 16.

41           Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol.36, Kabul,1983,p.79.Kakar writes that there were 910 teachers of higher education and 18,138 teachers in primary and high schools in 1970; M.Hassan Kakar, Afghanistan, the Sovietization and Afghan Response,California,1995,p.79.

42           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.29.

43           USAID, National Demographic and Family Guidance Survey of the Settled Population of Afghanistan, 1, Kabul, 1975, pp.73-92.

44           Trosten Husen and T. Neville Postlethwaite, The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B), New York, 1985, p.230.

45           The Struggle for Afghanistan, p.47.

46           M.Mobin Shorish,   “Education in Afghanistan” :Cf.www.right-to-education. org

47           Afghanistan, the Sovietization and Afghan Response, p.79.

48           UNESCO, Assistance to the Educational Reform, Report and Project Prospects of the Government of Afghanistan/UNDP/UNESCO Tripartite Review Mission, Kabul, 1977.

49           Sirdar Ikbal Ali Shah, Modern Afghanistan, London, 1938, p.268.

50           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.29.

51           World Education Encyclopedia, p.1453.

52           Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul, 1983, p.80.

53           Asa. S.Knowles, The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2(A), London, 1977, p.192.

54           Modern Afghanistan, p.267.

55           General education structure up to secondary level: 1945-75 (6+3+3); 1975-78 (8+4); 1979-85(4+4+2); 1986-90 (5+4+2); 1991-2000 (6+3+3).

56           In the first five year development plan (1956-1961) 6.5%of the national budget was devoted to social services in which the share of education was 958 million Afghanis. which increased to 1,759 million Afghanis in 1967.It is reported that the expenditure on education constituted about 10% of the national budget during this period, Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.28.

57           Modern Afghanistan, p.268.

58           The Struggle for Afghanistan, p.41.

59           The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.194.

60           Mohammad Ali, Progressive Afghanistan, Lahore, 1933, p.186.

61           Modern Afghanistan, pp.223-224.

62           The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.193.

63           S.B.Majrooh, “Education in Afghanistan, past and present,” The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, p.135.

64           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.69.

65           World Education Encyclopedia, p.1453.

66           Trosten Husen and T. Neville Postlethwaite, The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B), New York, 1985, p.230.

67           S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985,p.91

68           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, Paris, 2001,p.69.S.M.Y Elmi writes that there were 2,605 primary schools and 556 other educational institutions existing in the country side in 1978, “ The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985,p.90.

69           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.69.

70           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.69.

71           S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985,p.91.

72           Edward Giradet, Afghanistan, The Soviet War, New Delhi, 1986.p.141, 143.

73           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.69.

74           S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985,p.74.

75           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.70.

76           World Education Encyclopedia, p.1456.

77           Oliver Roy, Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan, Cambridge University Press, revised ed, 1990, pp. 32-33.

78           Oliver  Roy,  “The  Mujahedin  and  the  preservation  of  Afghan  culture”, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union ed. Milan Hauner and Robert L.Canfield, London, 1989.p.55.

79           Barnet. R.Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan,USA,1995,p.141

80           The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, p.141

81           Ijaz S.Gilani, The Future of Afghanistan, Pakistan, 1989, p.88.

82           World Education Encyclopedia, p, 1456.

83           Afghanistan, The Soviet War, p.146.

84           Press Bulletin, Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Islamabad, October 28, 1987, p.6.

85           Trosten Husen and T. Neville Postlethwaite, The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B), New York, 1985, p.230.

86           S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”,

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87           “The Mujahedin and the preservation of Afghan culture”, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, p.55.

88           The Fragmentation of Afghanistan,p.140.

89           “The Mujahedin and the preservation of Afghan culture”, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, p.54.

90           Afghanistan, The Soviet War, p.145.

91           Verinder Grover, Afghanistan Government and Politics, New Delhi, 1990, p.152.

92           “The Mujahedin and the preservation of Afghan culture”, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, p.54.

93           World Education Encyclopedia, p, 1454.

94           Afghanistan, The Soviet War, p.143.

95           S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, p.78.

96           Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p,72.

97           The Future of Afghanistan, Pakistan, pp.86-87.

98           The  Fragmentation  of  Afghanistan,  p.140;  S.M.Y  Elmi,  “The  Impact  of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, p77.

99           S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”,The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar,1985, p77.

100 Afghanistan, The Soviet War, New Delhi, 1986, p.145.

101 The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, pp.140-141.

102 S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar,1985, p80.

103 Muhammed  Fazil,  “The  Education  of  Free  Afghanistan”,  The  Future  of Afghanistan, ed. Ijaz S.Gilani ,Pakistan,1989,p.92.

104 Afghanistan, The Soviet War, p.141.

105 S.M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar,1985, p80.

106 Mir Hekmetullah Sadat, “History of Education in Afghanistan”,(www.reliefweb. int)

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110 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.72.

111 Afghanistan Government and Politics, p.152.

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114 “History of Education in Afghanistan”: Cf.www.reliefweb.int

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116 The EFA 2000 Assessment Country Reports, Afghanistan, I,(www2.unesco. org)

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119 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.80.

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125 The EFA 2000 Assessment Country Reports, Afghanistan, I,(www2.unesco. org).

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128 Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, p.39.

129 Heike Bill, “Does it Really Make a Difference for a Women”, Afghanistan a    Country   Without   a   State,ed,   Christine   Noelle,Karim   Canrad   and Reinhard,Lahore,2004,p.103.

130 Arpita   Basu,   “Position   of   Women   in   Afghanistan”,   The   Afghanistan Crises,ed.K.Warikoo, New Delhi,2002,p.108.

131 United States Department, Country Reports on Human Practices for 1996, pp.1415-1416.

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140 Arpita   Basu,   “Position   of   Women   in   Afghanistan”,   The   Afghanistan

141 Arpita   Basu,   “Position   of   Women   in   Afghanistan”,   The   Afghanistan Crises,ed.K.Warikoo, New Delhi,2002,pp.109-110.

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145 Apratim Mukarji, Afghanistan, From Terror to Freedom, New Dehli, 2003, p134.

146 Peter Schwittek, “About the school system under the Taliban” Afghanistan a              Country   Without   a   State,ed.   Christine   Noelle,Karim   Canrad   and Reinhard,Lahore,2004,pp.95-96.

147 Nancy Hatch Dupree, “Afghan Women Under the Taliban”, Afghanistan and the Taliban, ed. William Maley,New Delhi,2001,p.165.

148 Peter Schwittek, “About the school system under the Taliban” Afghanistan a              Country   Without   a   State,ed.   Christine   Noelle,Karim   Canrad   and Reinhard,Lahore,2004,pp.95-97.

149 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.84.

150 Afghanistan Fact Sheet, Basic Information and Key Indicators, The Centre for Economic and Social Rights, New York,2001,(www.cesr.org).

151 UNESCO, Afghanistan, 2002, p.26, (www.unesco.org).

152 “History of Education in Afghanistan”: Cf.www.reliefweb.int

153 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.81.

154 Arpita   Basu,   “Position   of   Women   in   Afghanistan”,   The   Afghanistan Crises,ed.K.Warikoo, New Delhi,2002,pp.108-109.

155 Ahmad Rashid, Taliban,London,2001,p.108..

156 S.Azhar, “Afghan Refugees in Pakistan”, The Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism, Ewan Anderson and Nancy Hatch Dupree, New York, 1990, p.110.

157 S.Azhar, “Afghan Refugees in Pakistan”, The Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism, Ewan Anderson and Nancy Hatch Dupree, New York, 1990, p.110.

158 S.B.Majrooh, “Education in Afghanistan, past and present,” The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, pp.137-138.

159 S. Kushkaki, “Afghan Refugees”, The Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism, Ewan Anderson and Nancy Hatch Dupree, New York, 1990, p.119

160 S. Kushkaki, “Afghan Refugees”, The Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism, Ewan Anderson and Nancy Hatch Dupree, New York, 1990, p.119.

161 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.86.

162 S.B.Majrooh, “Education in Afghanistan, past and present,” The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, p.138.

163 S. Kushkaki, “Afghan Refugees”, The Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism, Ewan Anderson and Nancy Hatch Dupree, New York, 1990, p.119.

164 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.88. Ewan Anderson and Nancy Hatch Dupree, New York, 1990, p.119.

166 S.Azhar,  “Afghan  Refugees  in  Pakistan”,  The  Cultural  Basis  of  Afghan Nationalism,   Ewan   Anderson   and   Nancy   Hatch   Dupree,   New   York, 1990,p.110.

167 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.88,90.

168 S.B.Majrooh, “Education in Afghanistan, past and present,” The Sovietization of Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, pp.138-139

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170 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, pp.86-87.

171 “Children Effected by Armed Conflict”, UNICEF, 2002, p.32: Cf. www.unesco. org

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Afghanistan, ed. S.M.Y Elmi and S.B.Majrooh, Peshawar, 1985, pp.138-139.

175 Asa.S.Knowles, The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) London, 1977, p.191.

176 The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B), p.229.

177 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.36.

178 Afghanistan, the Sovietization and Afghan Response, p.79.

179 The EFA 2000 Assessment Country Reports, Afghanistan, I,(www2.unesco. org).

180 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century,  pp.36-37.

181 Department of Planning, Education Statistics, Afghanistan republic Ministry of Education, 1972, pp2-3.

182 The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B), p.230.

183 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.35; Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul, 1983, pp.76-77.

184 Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul, 1983, p.78.

185 Secondary school enrollment includes the grades of 7-12 except for the years 1975-1979.

186 Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul, 1983, p.81.

187 Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul,1983,p.77.

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189 The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B),  p.230.

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193 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p. 1455.

194 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture,  p.85.

195 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1455.

196 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III,  p.1455.

197 Modern Afghanistan, p.269..

198 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A)p.190.

199 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.59.

200 Abdul Satar, “Shariah and Islamic Education in Modern Afghanistan,” Middle East Journal, vol. 23, 1969, p.218.

201 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.59.

202 H.Mojadaddi, “The Development of Higher Education in Afghanistan”, Kabul University, Bulletin of UNESCO, Office for Education in Asia, vol.VII, no.1, 1972, pp.17-23.

203 The Struggle for Afghanistan,  p.54.

204 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.190.

205 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.59.

206 “History of Education in Afghanistan”,(www.reliefweb.int).

207 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture,  p.86.

208 The Struggle for Afghanistan, pp.54-55.

209 Afghanistan, the Sovietization and Afghan Response, p.79.

210 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.59.

211 Afghanistan, the Sovietization and Afghan Response, p.93.

212 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.59.

213 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2(A),p.192.

214 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1455.

215 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century,  p.61.

216 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1455.

217 The Struggle for Afghanistan, p.55.

218 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.192.

219 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1455.

220 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.193.

221 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.61.

222 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2(A), p.193.

223 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture,  p.86.

224 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.61.

225 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.191.

226 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture, p.87.

227 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A), p.191.

228 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.60.

229 M.Y Elmi, “The Impact of Sovietization on Afghan Education and Culture”, 1985, p84.

230 The Struggle for Afghanistan, p.55.

231 The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, p.186.

232 Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, p.72.

233 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.52.

234 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture,  p.87.

235 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.190.

236 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, pp.52-53.

237 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1456.

238 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.53.

239 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1456.

240 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.54.

241 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1456.

242 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.192.

243 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, p.1456.

244 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.54.

245 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2 (A) p.192.

246 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century,  p.55.

247 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.55, 58.

248 The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, p.240.

249 Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan,  pp.72-73.

250 Modern Afghanistan, p.269.

251 Afghanistan Dar masiri Tarikh (Afghanistan in the Course of History), pp.792-794.

252 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture,  p.85.

253 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.46.

254 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2(A)p.192.

255 Afghanistan, its people, its society, its culture, p.215.

256 World Education Encyclopedia, Vol III, pp.1454-1455.

257 The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol, 1, (A-B), p.230.

258 The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, Vol.2(A)p.192

259 Gulgon Wror, “History of Education in Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Quarterly, Vol .36, Kabul, 1983, p.78.

260 Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century, p.47, 49.